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Synergetic toxic effect of an explosive material mixture in soil.

Panz K, Miksch K, Sójka T - Bull Environ Contam Toxicol (2013)

Bottom Line: The aim of the presented research was to assess the toxicity of forest soil contaminated with these substances both individually as well in combinations of these substances.Although RDX and HMX did not have adverse effects on plants, these compounds did cause earthworm mortality, which has not been reported in earlier research.Synergistic effects of explosives mixture were observed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Environmental Biotechnology Department, Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 2, Gliwice, Poland, katarzyna.panz@polsl.pl.

ABSTRACT
Explosives materials are stable in soil and recalcitrant to biodegradation. Different authors report that TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) and HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) are toxic, but most investigations have been performed in artificial soil with individual substances. The aim of the presented research was to assess the toxicity of forest soil contaminated with these substances both individually as well in combinations of these substances. TNT was the most toxic substance. Although RDX and HMX did not have adverse effects on plants, these compounds did cause earthworm mortality, which has not been reported in earlier research. Synergistic effects of explosives mixture were observed.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of different explosives concentrations on the biomass of red clover and bread wheat weight (*statistically significant results, p ≤ 0.05)
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Fig1: Effect of different explosives concentrations on the biomass of red clover and bread wheat weight (*statistically significant results, p ≤ 0.05)

Mentions: In the phytotoxicity evaluation of soil contaminated with explosives, inhibition of seed germination, biomass weight, and root growth for two plants (T. pretense and T.aestivum) were determined. It has been stated that a concentration 180 mg/kg of each explosive (except HMX) and a mixture of explosives in soil cause significant biomass loss of red clover seedlings (Fig. 1). For wheat seedlings, the significant fresh biomass loss was observed in each TNT concentration, while HMX and RDX caused increased growth in comparison with the control samples (in each analyzed concentration). In samples with the explosives mixture, growth stimulation was noticed in lower concentrations, while in the concentrations of 360 mg/kg and higher significant (in comparison with control samples) plant biomass weight loss was observed (Fig. 1). In the samples spiked with TNT at the greatest concentrations (540 and 1,000 mg/kg), chlorosis on the red clover leaves surface was visible. In the last 5 days of the experiment drying and death of the seedlings were observed.Fig. 1


Synergetic toxic effect of an explosive material mixture in soil.

Panz K, Miksch K, Sójka T - Bull Environ Contam Toxicol (2013)

Effect of different explosives concentrations on the biomass of red clover and bread wheat weight (*statistically significant results, p ≤ 0.05)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3824360&req=5

Fig1: Effect of different explosives concentrations on the biomass of red clover and bread wheat weight (*statistically significant results, p ≤ 0.05)
Mentions: In the phytotoxicity evaluation of soil contaminated with explosives, inhibition of seed germination, biomass weight, and root growth for two plants (T. pretense and T.aestivum) were determined. It has been stated that a concentration 180 mg/kg of each explosive (except HMX) and a mixture of explosives in soil cause significant biomass loss of red clover seedlings (Fig. 1). For wheat seedlings, the significant fresh biomass loss was observed in each TNT concentration, while HMX and RDX caused increased growth in comparison with the control samples (in each analyzed concentration). In samples with the explosives mixture, growth stimulation was noticed in lower concentrations, while in the concentrations of 360 mg/kg and higher significant (in comparison with control samples) plant biomass weight loss was observed (Fig. 1). In the samples spiked with TNT at the greatest concentrations (540 and 1,000 mg/kg), chlorosis on the red clover leaves surface was visible. In the last 5 days of the experiment drying and death of the seedlings were observed.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: The aim of the presented research was to assess the toxicity of forest soil contaminated with these substances both individually as well in combinations of these substances.Although RDX and HMX did not have adverse effects on plants, these compounds did cause earthworm mortality, which has not been reported in earlier research.Synergistic effects of explosives mixture were observed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Environmental Biotechnology Department, Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 2, Gliwice, Poland, katarzyna.panz@polsl.pl.

ABSTRACT
Explosives materials are stable in soil and recalcitrant to biodegradation. Different authors report that TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) and HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) are toxic, but most investigations have been performed in artificial soil with individual substances. The aim of the presented research was to assess the toxicity of forest soil contaminated with these substances both individually as well in combinations of these substances. TNT was the most toxic substance. Although RDX and HMX did not have adverse effects on plants, these compounds did cause earthworm mortality, which has not been reported in earlier research. Synergistic effects of explosives mixture were observed.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus