Limits...
Vaccine chronicle in Japan.

Nakayama T - J. Infect. Chemother. (2013)

Bottom Line: In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development.In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications.In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Viral Infection I, Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences, Shirokane 5-9-1, Minato-ku, 108-8641, Tokyo, tetsuo-n@lisci.kitasato-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
The concept of immunization was started in Japan in 1849 when Jenner's cowpox vaccine seed was introduced, and the current immunization law was stipulated in 1948. There have been two turning points for amendments to the immunization law: the compensation remedy for vaccine-associated adverse events in 1976, and the concept of private vaccination in 1994. In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development. In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications. In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Changes in the immunization strategy of the influenza vaccine, population more than 65 years and less than 15 years of age, and vaccine production in million doses
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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Fig5: Changes in the immunization strategy of the influenza vaccine, population more than 65 years and less than 15 years of age, and vaccine production in million doses

Mentions: Two types of influenza virus vaccines are now globally available, inactivated and cold-adapted live attenuated vaccines. There are three types of inactivated vaccines: whole virion, split, and subunit inactivated vaccines. The whole virion inactivated vaccine induced febrile reactions after the vaccination, and thereafter the split vaccine was licensed in 1972 in Japan, which has been used for more than 40 years with a lower incidence of febrile reactions. The split vaccine is made by destroying the structure of virus using detergents and ether to remove their lipid components from the formalin-inactivated whole virion. The HA subunit vaccine is purified from the HA fragments zone [51]. Changes in immunization policies, vaccine production, and the population aged less than 15 and more than 65 years are shown in Fig. 5. The transmission of influenza was believed to be associated with contact with schoolchildren, and, thereafter, the influenza vaccine has been recommended every year as school immunization in primary schools since 1962 [52]. In the 1960s, the pediatric population (<15 years of age) was more than 20 million, and more than 25 million doses of influenza vaccine were produced. The effects of school immunization on decreasing the social impact of influenza were questionable, and a comparative study was performed. There was no difference in the number of reported cases, number of hospital visits, and cost of healthcare insurance among several cities with or without school immunization in Gunma Prefecture in the early 1980s. This study provided evidence that school immunization had no effect on reducing the impact of influenza in the community, but had a limited effect on an individual basis [53, 54]. The influenza vaccine strategy was shifted from an obligatory routine vaccine to a voluntary vaccine in 1994. School immunization was interrupted in 1995, and the total amount of vaccine produced was at its lowest, 0.35 million doses. A large outbreak of H3N2 was observed in 1997, and several deaths were reported in many nursing homes for the elderly as social topics. It has been recommended as a routine recommended vaccine for the elderly more than 65 years of age since 2002 for the benefits of vaccine recipients [55].Fig. 5


Vaccine chronicle in Japan.

Nakayama T - J. Infect. Chemother. (2013)

Changes in the immunization strategy of the influenza vaccine, population more than 65 years and less than 15 years of age, and vaccine production in million doses
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3824286&req=5

Fig5: Changes in the immunization strategy of the influenza vaccine, population more than 65 years and less than 15 years of age, and vaccine production in million doses
Mentions: Two types of influenza virus vaccines are now globally available, inactivated and cold-adapted live attenuated vaccines. There are three types of inactivated vaccines: whole virion, split, and subunit inactivated vaccines. The whole virion inactivated vaccine induced febrile reactions after the vaccination, and thereafter the split vaccine was licensed in 1972 in Japan, which has been used for more than 40 years with a lower incidence of febrile reactions. The split vaccine is made by destroying the structure of virus using detergents and ether to remove their lipid components from the formalin-inactivated whole virion. The HA subunit vaccine is purified from the HA fragments zone [51]. Changes in immunization policies, vaccine production, and the population aged less than 15 and more than 65 years are shown in Fig. 5. The transmission of influenza was believed to be associated with contact with schoolchildren, and, thereafter, the influenza vaccine has been recommended every year as school immunization in primary schools since 1962 [52]. In the 1960s, the pediatric population (<15 years of age) was more than 20 million, and more than 25 million doses of influenza vaccine were produced. The effects of school immunization on decreasing the social impact of influenza were questionable, and a comparative study was performed. There was no difference in the number of reported cases, number of hospital visits, and cost of healthcare insurance among several cities with or without school immunization in Gunma Prefecture in the early 1980s. This study provided evidence that school immunization had no effect on reducing the impact of influenza in the community, but had a limited effect on an individual basis [53, 54]. The influenza vaccine strategy was shifted from an obligatory routine vaccine to a voluntary vaccine in 1994. School immunization was interrupted in 1995, and the total amount of vaccine produced was at its lowest, 0.35 million doses. A large outbreak of H3N2 was observed in 1997, and several deaths were reported in many nursing homes for the elderly as social topics. It has been recommended as a routine recommended vaccine for the elderly more than 65 years of age since 2002 for the benefits of vaccine recipients [55].Fig. 5

Bottom Line: In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development.In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications.In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Viral Infection I, Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences, Shirokane 5-9-1, Minato-ku, 108-8641, Tokyo, tetsuo-n@lisci.kitasato-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
The concept of immunization was started in Japan in 1849 when Jenner's cowpox vaccine seed was introduced, and the current immunization law was stipulated in 1948. There have been two turning points for amendments to the immunization law: the compensation remedy for vaccine-associated adverse events in 1976, and the concept of private vaccination in 1994. In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development. In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications. In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus