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Vaccine chronicle in Japan.

Nakayama T - J. Infect. Chemother. (2013)

Bottom Line: In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development.In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications.In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Viral Infection I, Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences, Shirokane 5-9-1, Minato-ku, 108-8641, Tokyo, tetsuo-n@lisci.kitasato-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
The concept of immunization was started in Japan in 1849 when Jenner's cowpox vaccine seed was introduced, and the current immunization law was stipulated in 1948. There have been two turning points for amendments to the immunization law: the compensation remedy for vaccine-associated adverse events in 1976, and the concept of private vaccination in 1994. In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development. In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications. In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

History of the pertussis vaccine and surveillance of the number of reported cases of pertussis and pertussis deaths. The DPT vaccine was recommend in 1968. P Pertussis vaccine, DP Diphtheria toxoid combined with pertussis vaccine, DPT Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids combined with pertussis vaccine, DTaP acellular pertussis vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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Fig4: History of the pertussis vaccine and surveillance of the number of reported cases of pertussis and pertussis deaths. The DPT vaccine was recommend in 1968. P Pertussis vaccine, DP Diphtheria toxoid combined with pertussis vaccine, DPT Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids combined with pertussis vaccine, DTaP acellular pertussis vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids

Mentions: Pertussis is still a serious illness in young infants, and causes whooping cough, apnea, cyanosis, choking, and encephalopathy [35]. In Japan, the whole-cell pertussis vaccine was developed in 1949 and was combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTwP). The results of pertussis surveillance and changes in vaccine strategy are shown in Fig. 4. Although febrile adverse illness was observed in 10 % of the recipients of DTwP, with local reactions of redness at 50–60 % and induration at 20 %, this vaccine was accepted. A routine immunization schedule was implemented with DTwP in 1968, resulting in a reduction in the reported cases of pertussis and pertussis deaths. In 1974–1975, two accidental deaths were reported after the administration of DTwP and, thereafter, DTwP was temporarily discontinued. It was reintroduced for children aged 2 years old and older, or the DT vaccine was used instead of DTwP. The number of pertussis patients and pertussis deaths increased because of the low vaccine coverage [36, 37].Fig. 4


Vaccine chronicle in Japan.

Nakayama T - J. Infect. Chemother. (2013)

History of the pertussis vaccine and surveillance of the number of reported cases of pertussis and pertussis deaths. The DPT vaccine was recommend in 1968. P Pertussis vaccine, DP Diphtheria toxoid combined with pertussis vaccine, DPT Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids combined with pertussis vaccine, DTaP acellular pertussis vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3824286&req=5

Fig4: History of the pertussis vaccine and surveillance of the number of reported cases of pertussis and pertussis deaths. The DPT vaccine was recommend in 1968. P Pertussis vaccine, DP Diphtheria toxoid combined with pertussis vaccine, DPT Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids combined with pertussis vaccine, DTaP acellular pertussis vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids
Mentions: Pertussis is still a serious illness in young infants, and causes whooping cough, apnea, cyanosis, choking, and encephalopathy [35]. In Japan, the whole-cell pertussis vaccine was developed in 1949 and was combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTwP). The results of pertussis surveillance and changes in vaccine strategy are shown in Fig. 4. Although febrile adverse illness was observed in 10 % of the recipients of DTwP, with local reactions of redness at 50–60 % and induration at 20 %, this vaccine was accepted. A routine immunization schedule was implemented with DTwP in 1968, resulting in a reduction in the reported cases of pertussis and pertussis deaths. In 1974–1975, two accidental deaths were reported after the administration of DTwP and, thereafter, DTwP was temporarily discontinued. It was reintroduced for children aged 2 years old and older, or the DT vaccine was used instead of DTwP. The number of pertussis patients and pertussis deaths increased because of the low vaccine coverage [36, 37].Fig. 4

Bottom Line: In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development.In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications.In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Viral Infection I, Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences, Shirokane 5-9-1, Minato-ku, 108-8641, Tokyo, tetsuo-n@lisci.kitasato-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
The concept of immunization was started in Japan in 1849 when Jenner's cowpox vaccine seed was introduced, and the current immunization law was stipulated in 1948. There have been two turning points for amendments to the immunization law: the compensation remedy for vaccine-associated adverse events in 1976, and the concept of private vaccination in 1994. In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development. In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications. In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus