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Vaccine chronicle in Japan.

Nakayama T - J. Infect. Chemother. (2013)

Bottom Line: In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development.In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications.In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Viral Infection I, Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences, Shirokane 5-9-1, Minato-ku, 108-8641, Tokyo, tetsuo-n@lisci.kitasato-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
The concept of immunization was started in Japan in 1849 when Jenner's cowpox vaccine seed was introduced, and the current immunization law was stipulated in 1948. There have been two turning points for amendments to the immunization law: the compensation remedy for vaccine-associated adverse events in 1976, and the concept of private vaccination in 1994. In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development. In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications. In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Polio surveillance in Japan since 1950. A peak number of patients with polio was observed in 1960, and the live polio vaccine was introduced in 1961 (upper panel). After 1962, the number of patients with polio decreased, and no wild strain has been isolated since 1980
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Fig3: Polio surveillance in Japan since 1950. A peak number of patients with polio was observed in 1960, and the live polio vaccine was introduced in 1961 (upper panel). After 1962, the number of patients with polio decreased, and no wild strain has been isolated since 1980

Mentions: Surveillance data of reported cases of polio paralysis are shown in Fig. 3. In 1960, a nationwide outbreak was observed, and approximately 5,800 patients with paralytic polio were reported. A similar level of outbreak seemed to be observed in 1961, and the Japanese government decided to import sufficient doses of OPV for all Japanese children. Within a month, 15 million doses were given to all Japanese children less than 5 years old. Around 1960, although IPV was under investigation and a clinical trial of imported OPV was also underway in Japan, the importation of OPV was politically decided. After the introduction of OPV in 1961 and afterward, the number of polio cases decreased [32]. After 1980, no wild strain was isolated from patients suspected of flaccid paralytic polio. All cases of paralytic polio were identified as vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAP). The incidence of VAP was recently shown to be one in 1.4 million recipients in Japan. Clinical trials of domestic IPV produced from Sabin’s live oral polio vaccine strains were performed beginning in 1998, but the application was withdrawn. Considering the practical way of immunization, the development of IPV combined with DTaP was more desirable than IPV alone. OPV was replaced with IPV in most developed countries, but it was delayed by the standstill of the IPV trial in Japan. Some guardians and pediatricians could not wait for the licensure of domestic DTaP/IPV and imported the IPV vaccine privately at their own responsibility. In 2012, IPV was allowed for use as a recommended vaccine imported from Sanofi and domestic DTaP/IPV vaccines [33]. The wild poliovirus was imported in several situations from countries where wild polio has been circulating, and the high levels of vaccine coverage have been maintained. In addition to disease surveillance, environment surveillance of the vaccine for polio virus should focus on sewage monitoring [34].Fig. 3


Vaccine chronicle in Japan.

Nakayama T - J. Infect. Chemother. (2013)

Polio surveillance in Japan since 1950. A peak number of patients with polio was observed in 1960, and the live polio vaccine was introduced in 1961 (upper panel). After 1962, the number of patients with polio decreased, and no wild strain has been isolated since 1980
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3824286&req=5

Fig3: Polio surveillance in Japan since 1950. A peak number of patients with polio was observed in 1960, and the live polio vaccine was introduced in 1961 (upper panel). After 1962, the number of patients with polio decreased, and no wild strain has been isolated since 1980
Mentions: Surveillance data of reported cases of polio paralysis are shown in Fig. 3. In 1960, a nationwide outbreak was observed, and approximately 5,800 patients with paralytic polio were reported. A similar level of outbreak seemed to be observed in 1961, and the Japanese government decided to import sufficient doses of OPV for all Japanese children. Within a month, 15 million doses were given to all Japanese children less than 5 years old. Around 1960, although IPV was under investigation and a clinical trial of imported OPV was also underway in Japan, the importation of OPV was politically decided. After the introduction of OPV in 1961 and afterward, the number of polio cases decreased [32]. After 1980, no wild strain was isolated from patients suspected of flaccid paralytic polio. All cases of paralytic polio were identified as vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAP). The incidence of VAP was recently shown to be one in 1.4 million recipients in Japan. Clinical trials of domestic IPV produced from Sabin’s live oral polio vaccine strains were performed beginning in 1998, but the application was withdrawn. Considering the practical way of immunization, the development of IPV combined with DTaP was more desirable than IPV alone. OPV was replaced with IPV in most developed countries, but it was delayed by the standstill of the IPV trial in Japan. Some guardians and pediatricians could not wait for the licensure of domestic DTaP/IPV and imported the IPV vaccine privately at their own responsibility. In 2012, IPV was allowed for use as a recommended vaccine imported from Sanofi and domestic DTaP/IPV vaccines [33]. The wild poliovirus was imported in several situations from countries where wild polio has been circulating, and the high levels of vaccine coverage have been maintained. In addition to disease surveillance, environment surveillance of the vaccine for polio virus should focus on sewage monitoring [34].Fig. 3

Bottom Line: In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development.In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications.In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Viral Infection I, Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences, Shirokane 5-9-1, Minato-ku, 108-8641, Tokyo, tetsuo-n@lisci.kitasato-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
The concept of immunization was started in Japan in 1849 when Jenner's cowpox vaccine seed was introduced, and the current immunization law was stipulated in 1948. There have been two turning points for amendments to the immunization law: the compensation remedy for vaccine-associated adverse events in 1976, and the concept of private vaccination in 1994. In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development. In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications. In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus