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Vaccine chronicle in Japan.

Nakayama T - J. Infect. Chemother. (2013)

Bottom Line: In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development.In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications.In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Viral Infection I, Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences, Shirokane 5-9-1, Minato-ku, 108-8641, Tokyo, tetsuo-n@lisci.kitasato-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
The concept of immunization was started in Japan in 1849 when Jenner's cowpox vaccine seed was introduced, and the current immunization law was stipulated in 1948. There have been two turning points for amendments to the immunization law: the compensation remedy for vaccine-associated adverse events in 1976, and the concept of private vaccination in 1994. In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development. In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications. In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Surveillance results of measles (a) and rubella (b), and the changes in immunization policies. Measles and rubella vaccines were recommended in 1978 and 1977, respectively. The MMR vaccine was used between 1989 and 1993, and the target generation of the rubella vaccine shifted from 14-year-old female schoolchildren to all infants 12–90 months of age. The two-dose schedule of the MR combined vaccine started in 2006. A catch-up campaign started in 2008 for an additional 5-year schedule for children 13 and 18 years of age. MMR measles, mumps, and rubella-combined vaccine
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Fig2: Surveillance results of measles (a) and rubella (b), and the changes in immunization policies. Measles and rubella vaccines were recommended in 1978 and 1977, respectively. The MMR vaccine was used between 1989 and 1993, and the target generation of the rubella vaccine shifted from 14-year-old female schoolchildren to all infants 12–90 months of age. The two-dose schedule of the MR combined vaccine started in 2006. A catch-up campaign started in 2008 for an additional 5-year schedule for children 13 and 18 years of age. MMR measles, mumps, and rubella-combined vaccine

Mentions: In Japan, live attenuated measles vaccines were developed in the 1970s, and four strains were licensed (three strains are used at present) with the implementation of recommended immunization in 1978 [14]. Five strains of live attenuated rubella vaccines (three strains are used at present) were developed and recommended for female students aged 14 years in 1977 [15]. Surveillance data and changes in the vaccination policy against measles and rubella are shown in Fig. 2. The MMR vaccine was used between 1989 and 1993 but was discontinued in 1993. Measles and rubella monovalent vaccines have been used for children aged 12–90 months since 1994 to control measles and rubella because the number of patients with congenital rubella syndrome did not decrease as a result of the vaccination of only young females since 1977.Fig. 2


Vaccine chronicle in Japan.

Nakayama T - J. Infect. Chemother. (2013)

Surveillance results of measles (a) and rubella (b), and the changes in immunization policies. Measles and rubella vaccines were recommended in 1978 and 1977, respectively. The MMR vaccine was used between 1989 and 1993, and the target generation of the rubella vaccine shifted from 14-year-old female schoolchildren to all infants 12–90 months of age. The two-dose schedule of the MR combined vaccine started in 2006. A catch-up campaign started in 2008 for an additional 5-year schedule for children 13 and 18 years of age. MMR measles, mumps, and rubella-combined vaccine
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3824286&req=5

Fig2: Surveillance results of measles (a) and rubella (b), and the changes in immunization policies. Measles and rubella vaccines were recommended in 1978 and 1977, respectively. The MMR vaccine was used between 1989 and 1993, and the target generation of the rubella vaccine shifted from 14-year-old female schoolchildren to all infants 12–90 months of age. The two-dose schedule of the MR combined vaccine started in 2006. A catch-up campaign started in 2008 for an additional 5-year schedule for children 13 and 18 years of age. MMR measles, mumps, and rubella-combined vaccine
Mentions: In Japan, live attenuated measles vaccines were developed in the 1970s, and four strains were licensed (three strains are used at present) with the implementation of recommended immunization in 1978 [14]. Five strains of live attenuated rubella vaccines (three strains are used at present) were developed and recommended for female students aged 14 years in 1977 [15]. Surveillance data and changes in the vaccination policy against measles and rubella are shown in Fig. 2. The MMR vaccine was used between 1989 and 1993 but was discontinued in 1993. Measles and rubella monovalent vaccines have been used for children aged 12–90 months since 1994 to control measles and rubella because the number of patients with congenital rubella syndrome did not decrease as a result of the vaccination of only young females since 1977.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development.In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications.In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Viral Infection I, Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences, Shirokane 5-9-1, Minato-ku, 108-8641, Tokyo, tetsuo-n@lisci.kitasato-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
The concept of immunization was started in Japan in 1849 when Jenner's cowpox vaccine seed was introduced, and the current immunization law was stipulated in 1948. There have been two turning points for amendments to the immunization law: the compensation remedy for vaccine-associated adverse events in 1976, and the concept of private vaccination in 1994. In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development. In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications. In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus