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Vaccine chronicle in Japan.

Nakayama T - J. Infect. Chemother. (2013)

Bottom Line: In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development.In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications.In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Viral Infection I, Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences, Shirokane 5-9-1, Minato-ku, 108-8641, Tokyo, tetsuo-n@lisci.kitasato-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
The concept of immunization was started in Japan in 1849 when Jenner's cowpox vaccine seed was introduced, and the current immunization law was stipulated in 1948. There have been two turning points for amendments to the immunization law: the compensation remedy for vaccine-associated adverse events in 1976, and the concept of private vaccination in 1994. In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development. In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications. In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

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Immunization schedule. BCG, IPV, DPT, DT, MR, JEV, Hib, PCV7, and HPV were recommended vaccines and HBV, Mumps, VZV, and Rota vaccines were voluntary vaccines. Arrows show the recommended timing for vaccinations. BCG Bacillus Calmette Guérin, IPV Inactivated polio vaccine, DPT Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids combined with pertussis vaccine, DT Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, MR Measles and rubella-combined vaccine, JEV Japanese encephalitis vaccine, Hib Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, PCV7 7-valent Str. pneumoniae vaccine, HPV Human papilloma virus vaccine, HBV Hepatitis B virus vaccine, VZV Varicella zoster virus vaccine
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Fig1: Immunization schedule. BCG, IPV, DPT, DT, MR, JEV, Hib, PCV7, and HPV were recommended vaccines and HBV, Mumps, VZV, and Rota vaccines were voluntary vaccines. Arrows show the recommended timing for vaccinations. BCG Bacillus Calmette Guérin, IPV Inactivated polio vaccine, DPT Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids combined with pertussis vaccine, DT Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, MR Measles and rubella-combined vaccine, JEV Japanese encephalitis vaccine, Hib Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, PCV7 7-valent Str. pneumoniae vaccine, HPV Human papilloma virus vaccine, HBV Hepatitis B virus vaccine, VZV Varicella zoster virus vaccine

Mentions: In 2010, Hib, PCV7, and HPV began to be used as temporarily recommended vaccines, and the cost was partially supported by the regional governments [12]. Vaccination coverage of routine recommended vaccines is more than 90–95 % for BCG, DTaP, OPV, and MR and 80 % for JEV, whereas that of voluntary vaccines is less than 30–40 %. During 1990–2000 polyvalent combined vaccines were developed in the EU and widely used. There is no licensed polyvalent vaccine in Japan, and the vaccination schedule became much tighter than that in the 1990s, especially in very young infants less than 6 months of age (Fig. 1). Simultaneous administration of several vaccines was recommended by the Japanese Pediatric Association, as has been conducted in the US and EU [3, 4]. In March 2011, seven infants died within a week of receiving DTaP, Hib, PCV7, or BCG. The newly introduced Hib and PCV7 were temporally discontinued, but were restarted 1 month later because the risk of serious adverse events was not higher than that reported in developed countries. Simultaneous administration has been safely and effectively performed in the US and EU; however, the incidence of serious adverse events has been reported as 0.02–1 in 100,000 [13]. Therefore, simultaneous immunization is now performed without a high level of confidence. Careful surveillance monitoring and scientific investigations are required to define the safety of simultaneous immunization.Fig. 1


Vaccine chronicle in Japan.

Nakayama T - J. Infect. Chemother. (2013)

Immunization schedule. BCG, IPV, DPT, DT, MR, JEV, Hib, PCV7, and HPV were recommended vaccines and HBV, Mumps, VZV, and Rota vaccines were voluntary vaccines. Arrows show the recommended timing for vaccinations. BCG Bacillus Calmette Guérin, IPV Inactivated polio vaccine, DPT Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids combined with pertussis vaccine, DT Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, MR Measles and rubella-combined vaccine, JEV Japanese encephalitis vaccine, Hib Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, PCV7 7-valent Str. pneumoniae vaccine, HPV Human papilloma virus vaccine, HBV Hepatitis B virus vaccine, VZV Varicella zoster virus vaccine
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3824286&req=5

Fig1: Immunization schedule. BCG, IPV, DPT, DT, MR, JEV, Hib, PCV7, and HPV were recommended vaccines and HBV, Mumps, VZV, and Rota vaccines were voluntary vaccines. Arrows show the recommended timing for vaccinations. BCG Bacillus Calmette Guérin, IPV Inactivated polio vaccine, DPT Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids combined with pertussis vaccine, DT Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, MR Measles and rubella-combined vaccine, JEV Japanese encephalitis vaccine, Hib Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, PCV7 7-valent Str. pneumoniae vaccine, HPV Human papilloma virus vaccine, HBV Hepatitis B virus vaccine, VZV Varicella zoster virus vaccine
Mentions: In 2010, Hib, PCV7, and HPV began to be used as temporarily recommended vaccines, and the cost was partially supported by the regional governments [12]. Vaccination coverage of routine recommended vaccines is more than 90–95 % for BCG, DTaP, OPV, and MR and 80 % for JEV, whereas that of voluntary vaccines is less than 30–40 %. During 1990–2000 polyvalent combined vaccines were developed in the EU and widely used. There is no licensed polyvalent vaccine in Japan, and the vaccination schedule became much tighter than that in the 1990s, especially in very young infants less than 6 months of age (Fig. 1). Simultaneous administration of several vaccines was recommended by the Japanese Pediatric Association, as has been conducted in the US and EU [3, 4]. In March 2011, seven infants died within a week of receiving DTaP, Hib, PCV7, or BCG. The newly introduced Hib and PCV7 were temporally discontinued, but were restarted 1 month later because the risk of serious adverse events was not higher than that reported in developed countries. Simultaneous administration has been safely and effectively performed in the US and EU; however, the incidence of serious adverse events has been reported as 0.02–1 in 100,000 [13]. Therefore, simultaneous immunization is now performed without a high level of confidence. Careful surveillance monitoring and scientific investigations are required to define the safety of simultaneous immunization.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development.In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications.In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Viral Infection I, Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences, Shirokane 5-9-1, Minato-ku, 108-8641, Tokyo, tetsuo-n@lisci.kitasato-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
The concept of immunization was started in Japan in 1849 when Jenner's cowpox vaccine seed was introduced, and the current immunization law was stipulated in 1948. There have been two turning points for amendments to the immunization law: the compensation remedy for vaccine-associated adverse events in 1976, and the concept of private vaccination in 1994. In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development. In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications. In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus