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Three-dimensional reconstruction of brain structures of the rodent Octodon degus: a brain atlas constructed by combining histological and magnetic resonance images.

Kumazawa-Manita N, Katayama M, Hashikawa T, Iriki A - Exp Brain Res (2013)

Bottom Line: Degus (Octodon degus) are rodents that are becoming more widely used in the neuroscience field.However, relatively little information is known about the anatomy of degu brains.This manuscript describes the construction of a three-dimensional (3D) volume rendered model of the degu brain that combines histological and magnetic resonance images.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory for Symbolic Cognitive Development, RIKEN, Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan, nkuma@brain.riken.jp.

ABSTRACT
Degus (Octodon degus) are rodents that are becoming more widely used in the neuroscience field. Degus display several more complex behaviors than rats and mice, including complicated social behaviors, vocal communications, and tool usage with superb manual dexterity. However, relatively little information is known about the anatomy of degu brains. Therefore, for these complex behaviors to be correlated with specific brain regions, a contemporary atlas of the degu brain is required. This manuscript describes the construction of a three-dimensional (3D) volume rendered model of the degu brain that combines histological and magnetic resonance images. This atlas provides several advantages, including the ability to visualize the surface of the brain from any angle. The atlas also permits virtual cutting of brain sections in any plane and provides stereotaxic coordinates for all sections, to be beneficial for both experimental surgeries and radiological studies. The reconstructed 3D atlas is freely available online at: http://brainatlas.brain.riken.jp/degu/modules/xoonips/listitem.php?index_id=24 .

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Representative sections reconstructed from the volume rendered brain model of the degu with neurosurgical (a) and radiological (c) stereotaxic coordinates. Nissl images with annotations are provided in the left portion of each panel and MR images taken from the corresponding levels are provided in the right portion of each panel. Locations with respect to the interaural line are indicated in parenthesis of each Nissl image. b The positional differences between neurosurgical (left) and radiological (right) stereotaxic coordinates. The radiological coordinates contain a horizontal zero axis that passes through the AC–PC line (Wright and Kern 1992). This axis results in an anterior shift of 40 degrees in radiological coordinates relative to neurosurgical coordinates. Lines A and C in b indicate approximate level of sectioning of Nissl images in a and c, respectively. AH anterior hypothalamic area, BL basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, BM basomedial amygdaloid nucleus, cc corpus callosum, Ce central amygdaloid nucleus, CER cerebral cortex, Cl claustrum, cp cerebral peduncle, CPu caudate putamen, DLG dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, ec external capsule, f fornix, fi fimbria, fr fasciculus retroflexus, Hb habenular nuclei, Hip hippocampal formation, ic internal capsule, La lateral amygdaloid nucleus, LD laterodorsal thalamic nucleus, LV lateral ventricle, (M1) presumable primary motor cortex, MD mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, Me medial amygdaloid nucleus, ml medial lemniscus, mt mammillothalamic tract, opt optic tract, PAG periaqueductal gray, Pir piriform cortex, PLCo posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus, RS retrosplenial cortex, Rt reticular thalamic nucleus, (S1) presumable primary somatosensory cortex, SNR substantia nigra, reticular part, st stria terminalis, st stria terminalis, VM ventromedial thalamic nucleus, VMH ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, VPL ventral posterolateral thalamic nucleus, VPM ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus, ZI zona incerta
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Fig3: Representative sections reconstructed from the volume rendered brain model of the degu with neurosurgical (a) and radiological (c) stereotaxic coordinates. Nissl images with annotations are provided in the left portion of each panel and MR images taken from the corresponding levels are provided in the right portion of each panel. Locations with respect to the interaural line are indicated in parenthesis of each Nissl image. b The positional differences between neurosurgical (left) and radiological (right) stereotaxic coordinates. The radiological coordinates contain a horizontal zero axis that passes through the AC–PC line (Wright and Kern 1992). This axis results in an anterior shift of 40 degrees in radiological coordinates relative to neurosurgical coordinates. Lines A and C in b indicate approximate level of sectioning of Nissl images in a and c, respectively. AH anterior hypothalamic area, BL basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, BM basomedial amygdaloid nucleus, cc corpus callosum, Ce central amygdaloid nucleus, CER cerebral cortex, Cl claustrum, cp cerebral peduncle, CPu caudate putamen, DLG dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, ec external capsule, f fornix, fi fimbria, fr fasciculus retroflexus, Hb habenular nuclei, Hip hippocampal formation, ic internal capsule, La lateral amygdaloid nucleus, LD laterodorsal thalamic nucleus, LV lateral ventricle, (M1) presumable primary motor cortex, MD mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, Me medial amygdaloid nucleus, ml medial lemniscus, mt mammillothalamic tract, opt optic tract, PAG periaqueductal gray, Pir piriform cortex, PLCo posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus, RS retrosplenial cortex, Rt reticular thalamic nucleus, (S1) presumable primary somatosensory cortex, SNR substantia nigra, reticular part, st stria terminalis, st stria terminalis, VM ventromedial thalamic nucleus, VMH ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, VPL ventral posterolateral thalamic nucleus, VPM ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus, ZI zona incerta

Mentions: The brain structures were assumed to be in the correct positions because the MR images were acquired from brains that were fixed in the skull. Finer data about the brain structures were then obtained from the Nissl-stained images because the resolutions of the Nissl-stained images (5,214 × 5,673, 72 pixels/inch) were much higher than the resolutions of the MR images (512 × 512, 72 pixels/inch). Figures 3 and 4 show representative Nissl-stained images and corresponding MR images obtained from a 22-month-old male degu (body weight: 245.0 g). In addition, the atlas also contains outlines with annotation of representative brain structures. The brain structures were delineated by referring to the published rodent (Jones 1985; Paxinos 2004), carnivores (Berman 1968; Berman and Jones 1982; Jones 1985), and primate histological descriptions (Jones 1985; Bloom et al. 1997, 1998, 1999). The fiber tracts were outlined by solid gray lines, and nuclei and cell groups were outlined by solid lines with unique colors assigned to each structure (Figs. 1, 2). Abbreviations were usually placed in the center of the structures. When this was not possible, the abbreviations were placed adjacent to the structures and the structures were indicated by lines. The outlines of the ventricles and aqueducts were made with solid colors. The previously published degu brain used Latin anatomical terms for the nomenclature (Wright and Kern 1992). By contrast, this atlas uses the English anatomical terms adopted in “The Rat Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates” (Paxinos and Watson 2009) because this terminology is more widely used.Fig. 1


Three-dimensional reconstruction of brain structures of the rodent Octodon degus: a brain atlas constructed by combining histological and magnetic resonance images.

Kumazawa-Manita N, Katayama M, Hashikawa T, Iriki A - Exp Brain Res (2013)

Representative sections reconstructed from the volume rendered brain model of the degu with neurosurgical (a) and radiological (c) stereotaxic coordinates. Nissl images with annotations are provided in the left portion of each panel and MR images taken from the corresponding levels are provided in the right portion of each panel. Locations with respect to the interaural line are indicated in parenthesis of each Nissl image. b The positional differences between neurosurgical (left) and radiological (right) stereotaxic coordinates. The radiological coordinates contain a horizontal zero axis that passes through the AC–PC line (Wright and Kern 1992). This axis results in an anterior shift of 40 degrees in radiological coordinates relative to neurosurgical coordinates. Lines A and C in b indicate approximate level of sectioning of Nissl images in a and c, respectively. AH anterior hypothalamic area, BL basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, BM basomedial amygdaloid nucleus, cc corpus callosum, Ce central amygdaloid nucleus, CER cerebral cortex, Cl claustrum, cp cerebral peduncle, CPu caudate putamen, DLG dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, ec external capsule, f fornix, fi fimbria, fr fasciculus retroflexus, Hb habenular nuclei, Hip hippocampal formation, ic internal capsule, La lateral amygdaloid nucleus, LD laterodorsal thalamic nucleus, LV lateral ventricle, (M1) presumable primary motor cortex, MD mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, Me medial amygdaloid nucleus, ml medial lemniscus, mt mammillothalamic tract, opt optic tract, PAG periaqueductal gray, Pir piriform cortex, PLCo posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus, RS retrosplenial cortex, Rt reticular thalamic nucleus, (S1) presumable primary somatosensory cortex, SNR substantia nigra, reticular part, st stria terminalis, st stria terminalis, VM ventromedial thalamic nucleus, VMH ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, VPL ventral posterolateral thalamic nucleus, VPM ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus, ZI zona incerta
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Fig3: Representative sections reconstructed from the volume rendered brain model of the degu with neurosurgical (a) and radiological (c) stereotaxic coordinates. Nissl images with annotations are provided in the left portion of each panel and MR images taken from the corresponding levels are provided in the right portion of each panel. Locations with respect to the interaural line are indicated in parenthesis of each Nissl image. b The positional differences between neurosurgical (left) and radiological (right) stereotaxic coordinates. The radiological coordinates contain a horizontal zero axis that passes through the AC–PC line (Wright and Kern 1992). This axis results in an anterior shift of 40 degrees in radiological coordinates relative to neurosurgical coordinates. Lines A and C in b indicate approximate level of sectioning of Nissl images in a and c, respectively. AH anterior hypothalamic area, BL basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, BM basomedial amygdaloid nucleus, cc corpus callosum, Ce central amygdaloid nucleus, CER cerebral cortex, Cl claustrum, cp cerebral peduncle, CPu caudate putamen, DLG dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, ec external capsule, f fornix, fi fimbria, fr fasciculus retroflexus, Hb habenular nuclei, Hip hippocampal formation, ic internal capsule, La lateral amygdaloid nucleus, LD laterodorsal thalamic nucleus, LV lateral ventricle, (M1) presumable primary motor cortex, MD mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, Me medial amygdaloid nucleus, ml medial lemniscus, mt mammillothalamic tract, opt optic tract, PAG periaqueductal gray, Pir piriform cortex, PLCo posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus, RS retrosplenial cortex, Rt reticular thalamic nucleus, (S1) presumable primary somatosensory cortex, SNR substantia nigra, reticular part, st stria terminalis, st stria terminalis, VM ventromedial thalamic nucleus, VMH ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, VPL ventral posterolateral thalamic nucleus, VPM ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus, ZI zona incerta
Mentions: The brain structures were assumed to be in the correct positions because the MR images were acquired from brains that were fixed in the skull. Finer data about the brain structures were then obtained from the Nissl-stained images because the resolutions of the Nissl-stained images (5,214 × 5,673, 72 pixels/inch) were much higher than the resolutions of the MR images (512 × 512, 72 pixels/inch). Figures 3 and 4 show representative Nissl-stained images and corresponding MR images obtained from a 22-month-old male degu (body weight: 245.0 g). In addition, the atlas also contains outlines with annotation of representative brain structures. The brain structures were delineated by referring to the published rodent (Jones 1985; Paxinos 2004), carnivores (Berman 1968; Berman and Jones 1982; Jones 1985), and primate histological descriptions (Jones 1985; Bloom et al. 1997, 1998, 1999). The fiber tracts were outlined by solid gray lines, and nuclei and cell groups were outlined by solid lines with unique colors assigned to each structure (Figs. 1, 2). Abbreviations were usually placed in the center of the structures. When this was not possible, the abbreviations were placed adjacent to the structures and the structures were indicated by lines. The outlines of the ventricles and aqueducts were made with solid colors. The previously published degu brain used Latin anatomical terms for the nomenclature (Wright and Kern 1992). By contrast, this atlas uses the English anatomical terms adopted in “The Rat Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates” (Paxinos and Watson 2009) because this terminology is more widely used.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Degus (Octodon degus) are rodents that are becoming more widely used in the neuroscience field.However, relatively little information is known about the anatomy of degu brains.This manuscript describes the construction of a three-dimensional (3D) volume rendered model of the degu brain that combines histological and magnetic resonance images.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory for Symbolic Cognitive Development, RIKEN, Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan, nkuma@brain.riken.jp.

ABSTRACT
Degus (Octodon degus) are rodents that are becoming more widely used in the neuroscience field. Degus display several more complex behaviors than rats and mice, including complicated social behaviors, vocal communications, and tool usage with superb manual dexterity. However, relatively little information is known about the anatomy of degu brains. Therefore, for these complex behaviors to be correlated with specific brain regions, a contemporary atlas of the degu brain is required. This manuscript describes the construction of a three-dimensional (3D) volume rendered model of the degu brain that combines histological and magnetic resonance images. This atlas provides several advantages, including the ability to visualize the surface of the brain from any angle. The atlas also permits virtual cutting of brain sections in any plane and provides stereotaxic coordinates for all sections, to be beneficial for both experimental surgeries and radiological studies. The reconstructed 3D atlas is freely available online at: http://brainatlas.brain.riken.jp/degu/modules/xoonips/listitem.php?index_id=24 .

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus