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Cryptic speciation or global spread? The case of a cosmopolitan marine invertebrate with limited dispersal capabilities.

R PP, V A, M R, X T - Sci Rep (2013)

Bottom Line: The existence of globally-distributed species with low dispersal capabilities is a paradox that has been explained as a result of human-mediated transport and by hidden diversity in the form of unrecognized cryptic species.In addition, we found a complex geographic structure and multiple clades occurred in sympatry.The present study shows the complexity of discerning the role of cryptic diversity from human-driven range shifts worldwide, as well as disentangling the effects of natural and artificial dispersal.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Accés Cala S Francesc 14, 17300 Blanes (Girona), Spain.

ABSTRACT
The existence of globally-distributed species with low dispersal capabilities is a paradox that has been explained as a result of human-mediated transport and by hidden diversity in the form of unrecognized cryptic species. Both factors are not mutually exclusive, but relatively few studies have demonstrated the presence of both. Here we analyse the genetic patterns of the colonial ascidian Diplosoma listerianum, a species nowadays distributed globally. The study of a fragment of a mitochondrial gene in localities worldwide revealed the existence of multiple cryptic species. In addition, we found a complex geographic structure and multiple clades occurred in sympatry. One of the species showed strong population structure irrespective of geographical distances, which is coherent with stochastic dispersal linked to human transport. The present study shows the complexity of discerning the role of cryptic diversity from human-driven range shifts worldwide, as well as disentangling the effects of natural and artificial dispersal.

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Diplosoma listerianum distribution.Left: Sampling locations of D. listerianum. The grey shadow indicates known distribution of the species, pie charts on the map represent clade frequencies for each locality, and pie size is proportional to sample size. AN: Antofagasta, Chile; AR: Arenys, Spain; BA: Bastimentos Island, Panama; BO: Bocas del Toro, Panama; CA: Bodega Bay, California; CO: Coquimbo, Chile; CT: Cape Town, South Africa; HB: Hout Bay, South Africa; JA: Misaki, Japan; PA: Port Alfred, South Africa; PL: Plymouth, UK; SA: Santander Bay, Spain; MB: Melbourne Bay, Australia; WAS: Snog Harbour, Washington. Right: Haplotype frequencies of clade A for the 11 populations analysed. White haplotypes represent private haplotypes and black ones represent haplotypes shared with populations which have not been considered for population genetics analyses. Dashed arrows suggest the most likely way of spreading. This map has been created by R.P.-P. in Adobe Illustrator CS3 Software.
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f1: Diplosoma listerianum distribution.Left: Sampling locations of D. listerianum. The grey shadow indicates known distribution of the species, pie charts on the map represent clade frequencies for each locality, and pie size is proportional to sample size. AN: Antofagasta, Chile; AR: Arenys, Spain; BA: Bastimentos Island, Panama; BO: Bocas del Toro, Panama; CA: Bodega Bay, California; CO: Coquimbo, Chile; CT: Cape Town, South Africa; HB: Hout Bay, South Africa; JA: Misaki, Japan; PA: Port Alfred, South Africa; PL: Plymouth, UK; SA: Santander Bay, Spain; MB: Melbourne Bay, Australia; WAS: Snog Harbour, Washington. Right: Haplotype frequencies of clade A for the 11 populations analysed. White haplotypes represent private haplotypes and black ones represent haplotypes shared with populations which have not been considered for population genetics analyses. Dashed arrows suggest the most likely way of spreading. This map has been created by R.P.-P. in Adobe Illustrator CS3 Software.

Mentions: We sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I (COI) with a total length of 531 bp from 234 colonies collected from 14 different localities (Fig. 1). A total of 216 variable sites (40.7%), and 43 haplotypes were found in all the sequences analysed (Table 1). A total of 34 (79%) were private haplotypes.


Cryptic speciation or global spread? The case of a cosmopolitan marine invertebrate with limited dispersal capabilities.

R PP, V A, M R, X T - Sci Rep (2013)

Diplosoma listerianum distribution.Left: Sampling locations of D. listerianum. The grey shadow indicates known distribution of the species, pie charts on the map represent clade frequencies for each locality, and pie size is proportional to sample size. AN: Antofagasta, Chile; AR: Arenys, Spain; BA: Bastimentos Island, Panama; BO: Bocas del Toro, Panama; CA: Bodega Bay, California; CO: Coquimbo, Chile; CT: Cape Town, South Africa; HB: Hout Bay, South Africa; JA: Misaki, Japan; PA: Port Alfred, South Africa; PL: Plymouth, UK; SA: Santander Bay, Spain; MB: Melbourne Bay, Australia; WAS: Snog Harbour, Washington. Right: Haplotype frequencies of clade A for the 11 populations analysed. White haplotypes represent private haplotypes and black ones represent haplotypes shared with populations which have not been considered for population genetics analyses. Dashed arrows suggest the most likely way of spreading. This map has been created by R.P.-P. in Adobe Illustrator CS3 Software.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3824166&req=5

f1: Diplosoma listerianum distribution.Left: Sampling locations of D. listerianum. The grey shadow indicates known distribution of the species, pie charts on the map represent clade frequencies for each locality, and pie size is proportional to sample size. AN: Antofagasta, Chile; AR: Arenys, Spain; BA: Bastimentos Island, Panama; BO: Bocas del Toro, Panama; CA: Bodega Bay, California; CO: Coquimbo, Chile; CT: Cape Town, South Africa; HB: Hout Bay, South Africa; JA: Misaki, Japan; PA: Port Alfred, South Africa; PL: Plymouth, UK; SA: Santander Bay, Spain; MB: Melbourne Bay, Australia; WAS: Snog Harbour, Washington. Right: Haplotype frequencies of clade A for the 11 populations analysed. White haplotypes represent private haplotypes and black ones represent haplotypes shared with populations which have not been considered for population genetics analyses. Dashed arrows suggest the most likely way of spreading. This map has been created by R.P.-P. in Adobe Illustrator CS3 Software.
Mentions: We sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I (COI) with a total length of 531 bp from 234 colonies collected from 14 different localities (Fig. 1). A total of 216 variable sites (40.7%), and 43 haplotypes were found in all the sequences analysed (Table 1). A total of 34 (79%) were private haplotypes.

Bottom Line: The existence of globally-distributed species with low dispersal capabilities is a paradox that has been explained as a result of human-mediated transport and by hidden diversity in the form of unrecognized cryptic species.In addition, we found a complex geographic structure and multiple clades occurred in sympatry.The present study shows the complexity of discerning the role of cryptic diversity from human-driven range shifts worldwide, as well as disentangling the effects of natural and artificial dispersal.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Accés Cala S Francesc 14, 17300 Blanes (Girona), Spain.

ABSTRACT
The existence of globally-distributed species with low dispersal capabilities is a paradox that has been explained as a result of human-mediated transport and by hidden diversity in the form of unrecognized cryptic species. Both factors are not mutually exclusive, but relatively few studies have demonstrated the presence of both. Here we analyse the genetic patterns of the colonial ascidian Diplosoma listerianum, a species nowadays distributed globally. The study of a fragment of a mitochondrial gene in localities worldwide revealed the existence of multiple cryptic species. In addition, we found a complex geographic structure and multiple clades occurred in sympatry. One of the species showed strong population structure irrespective of geographical distances, which is coherent with stochastic dispersal linked to human transport. The present study shows the complexity of discerning the role of cryptic diversity from human-driven range shifts worldwide, as well as disentangling the effects of natural and artificial dispersal.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus