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amoA-encoding archaea and thaumarchaeol in the lakes on the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

Yang J, Jiang H, Dong H, Wang H, Wu G, Hou W, Liu W, Zhang C, Sun Y, Lai Z - Front Microbiol (2013)

Bottom Line: The results showed that the archaeal amoA gene was present in hypersaline lakes with salinity up to 160 g L(-) (1).Thaumarchaeol was present in all of the studied hypersaline lakes, even in those where no AEA amoA gene was observed.Future research is needed to determine the ecological function of AEA and possible sources of thaumarchaeol in the Qinghai-Tibetan hypersaline lakes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences Wuhan, China ; Key Lab of Salt Lake Resources and Chemistry, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences Xining, China.

ABSTRACT
All known ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) belong to the phylum Thaumarchaeota within the domain Archaea. AOA possess the diagnostic amoA gene (encoding the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase) and produce lipid biomarker thaumarchaeol. Although the abundance and diversity of amoA gene-encoding archaea (AEA) in freshwater lakes have been well-studied, little is known about AEA ecology in saline/hypersaline lakes. In this study, the distribution of the archaeal amoA gene and thaumarchaeol were investigated in nine Qinghai-Tibetan lakes with a salinity range from freshwater to salt-saturation (salinity: 325 g L(-) (1)). The results showed that the archaeal amoA gene was present in hypersaline lakes with salinity up to 160 g L(-) (1). The archaeal amoA gene diversity in Tibetan lakes was different from those in other lakes worldwide, suggesting Tibetan lakes (high elevation, strong ultraviolet, and dry climate) may host a unique AEA population of different evolutionary origin from those in other lakes. Thaumarchaeol was present in all of the studied hypersaline lakes, even in those where no AEA amoA gene was observed. Future research is needed to determine the ecological function of AEA and possible sources of thaumarchaeol in the Qinghai-Tibetan hypersaline lakes.

No MeSH data available.


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A geographic map showing the locations of the studied lakes on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, China.
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Figure 1: A geographic map showing the locations of the studied lakes on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, China.

Mentions: Nine lakes (Keluke Lake, Erhai Lake, Qinghai Lake, Tuosu Lake, Gahai Lake 1, Gahai Lake 2, Xiaochaidan Lake, Dongdabuxun Lake and Lake Chaka) on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau were selected for this study (Figure 1; Table 2). Keluke Lake is situated in the region of Delingha city. It has a surface area of 56.7 km2 with the maximum water depth of 13.3 m (Wang and Dou, 1998). Qinghai Lake is the largest saline lake in China, which is located in a structural intermontane depression at the northeastern corner of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau. It has an area of 4300 km2 and an average water depth of 19.2 m (Dong et al., 2006). Erhai Lake and Gahai Lake 1 are two daughter lakes of Qinghai Lake. Erhai Lake is a freshwater lake with a surface area of ~5 km2(Jiang et al., 2010). Gahai Lake 1 is a saline lake with a surface area of ~47.2 km2(Jiang et al., 2010). Tuosu Lake is located on the northeastern corner of the Qaidam Basin. It has an area of 165.9 km2 and the local average annual temperature is 2–4°C (Wang and Dou, 1998). Gahai Lake 2 is located on the northeastern edge of the Qaidam Basin. It has a surface area of 32 km2 with the maximum water depth of 13 m. The lake is situated in an arid climate system (100 mm of rainfall per year; Wang and Dou, 1998). Xiaochaidan Lake is a hypersaline lake located on the northern edge of the Qaidam Basin. It has a surface area of 71.5 km2 with the maximum water depth of 0.69 m (Jiang et al., 2009a). Dongdabuxun Lake is a hypersaline lake located in an extremely arid climate region (average rainfall: 24.7 mm per year; Wang and Dou, 1998). It has a surface area of 184.0–1001.0 km2 with water depth of 0.36–1.02 m. Lake Chaka is a shallow lake with a high salinity of 32.5%. It has a surface area of ~104 km2 with average water depth of 2–3 cm (Jiang et al., 2006).


amoA-encoding archaea and thaumarchaeol in the lakes on the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

Yang J, Jiang H, Dong H, Wang H, Wu G, Hou W, Liu W, Zhang C, Sun Y, Lai Z - Front Microbiol (2013)

A geographic map showing the locations of the studied lakes on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, China.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3824093&req=5

Figure 1: A geographic map showing the locations of the studied lakes on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, China.
Mentions: Nine lakes (Keluke Lake, Erhai Lake, Qinghai Lake, Tuosu Lake, Gahai Lake 1, Gahai Lake 2, Xiaochaidan Lake, Dongdabuxun Lake and Lake Chaka) on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau were selected for this study (Figure 1; Table 2). Keluke Lake is situated in the region of Delingha city. It has a surface area of 56.7 km2 with the maximum water depth of 13.3 m (Wang and Dou, 1998). Qinghai Lake is the largest saline lake in China, which is located in a structural intermontane depression at the northeastern corner of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau. It has an area of 4300 km2 and an average water depth of 19.2 m (Dong et al., 2006). Erhai Lake and Gahai Lake 1 are two daughter lakes of Qinghai Lake. Erhai Lake is a freshwater lake with a surface area of ~5 km2(Jiang et al., 2010). Gahai Lake 1 is a saline lake with a surface area of ~47.2 km2(Jiang et al., 2010). Tuosu Lake is located on the northeastern corner of the Qaidam Basin. It has an area of 165.9 km2 and the local average annual temperature is 2–4°C (Wang and Dou, 1998). Gahai Lake 2 is located on the northeastern edge of the Qaidam Basin. It has a surface area of 32 km2 with the maximum water depth of 13 m. The lake is situated in an arid climate system (100 mm of rainfall per year; Wang and Dou, 1998). Xiaochaidan Lake is a hypersaline lake located on the northern edge of the Qaidam Basin. It has a surface area of 71.5 km2 with the maximum water depth of 0.69 m (Jiang et al., 2009a). Dongdabuxun Lake is a hypersaline lake located in an extremely arid climate region (average rainfall: 24.7 mm per year; Wang and Dou, 1998). It has a surface area of 184.0–1001.0 km2 with water depth of 0.36–1.02 m. Lake Chaka is a shallow lake with a high salinity of 32.5%. It has a surface area of ~104 km2 with average water depth of 2–3 cm (Jiang et al., 2006).

Bottom Line: The results showed that the archaeal amoA gene was present in hypersaline lakes with salinity up to 160 g L(-) (1).Thaumarchaeol was present in all of the studied hypersaline lakes, even in those where no AEA amoA gene was observed.Future research is needed to determine the ecological function of AEA and possible sources of thaumarchaeol in the Qinghai-Tibetan hypersaline lakes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences Wuhan, China ; Key Lab of Salt Lake Resources and Chemistry, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences Xining, China.

ABSTRACT
All known ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) belong to the phylum Thaumarchaeota within the domain Archaea. AOA possess the diagnostic amoA gene (encoding the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase) and produce lipid biomarker thaumarchaeol. Although the abundance and diversity of amoA gene-encoding archaea (AEA) in freshwater lakes have been well-studied, little is known about AEA ecology in saline/hypersaline lakes. In this study, the distribution of the archaeal amoA gene and thaumarchaeol were investigated in nine Qinghai-Tibetan lakes with a salinity range from freshwater to salt-saturation (salinity: 325 g L(-) (1)). The results showed that the archaeal amoA gene was present in hypersaline lakes with salinity up to 160 g L(-) (1). The archaeal amoA gene diversity in Tibetan lakes was different from those in other lakes worldwide, suggesting Tibetan lakes (high elevation, strong ultraviolet, and dry climate) may host a unique AEA population of different evolutionary origin from those in other lakes. Thaumarchaeol was present in all of the studied hypersaline lakes, even in those where no AEA amoA gene was observed. Future research is needed to determine the ecological function of AEA and possible sources of thaumarchaeol in the Qinghai-Tibetan hypersaline lakes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus