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Cell biology in neuroscience: Death of developing neurons: new insights and implications for connectivity.

Dekkers MP, Nikoletopoulou V, Barde YA - J. Cell Biol. (2013)

Bottom Line: Recent discoveries now help to understand why only some developing neurons selectively depend on NGF.They also indicate that the survival of most neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) is not simply regulated by single growth factors like in the PNS.Additionally, components of the cell death machinery have begun to be recognized as regulators of selective axonal degeneration and synaptic function, thus playing a critical role in wiring up the nervous system.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Biozentrum, University of Basel, 4056 Basel, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
The concept that target tissues determine the survival of neurons has inspired much of the thinking on neuronal development in vertebrates, not least because it is supported by decades of research on nerve growth factor (NGF) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Recent discoveries now help to understand why only some developing neurons selectively depend on NGF. They also indicate that the survival of most neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) is not simply regulated by single growth factors like in the PNS. Additionally, components of the cell death machinery have begun to be recognized as regulators of selective axonal degeneration and synaptic function, thus playing a critical role in wiring up the nervous system.

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Canonical and noncanonical functions of the apoptotic machinery. (A) The apoptotic machinery is not only involved in eliminating cells destined to die, but is also a central player in refining neuronal connectivity, by regulating synaptic transmission and by generating the adult connectivity through axon pruning (Luo and O’Leary, 2005; Hyman and Yuan, 2012). But how the canonical and noncanonical roles of the apoptotic machinery are interlinked and spatially restricted is not well understood. (B) In the adult nervous system, the pro-apoptotic proteins BAX, caspase 9, and caspase 3 promote weakening of synapses (long-term depression [LTD]; Li et al., 2010; Jiao and Li, 2011; Jo et al., 2011), while the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-Xl and the IAP survivin promote synaptic strengthening (long-term potentiation [LTP]; Li et al., 2008a; Iscru et al., 2013). It is unclear how the activation of these pathways is restricted to a single synapse, but a recent review suggested that the proteasomal degradation of activated caspases may prevent their diffusion (Hyman and Yuan, 2012). (C) Caspase activation is now known to be required for axon pruning during development to generate the adult refined connectivity (Luo and O’Leary, 2005; Simon et al., 2012). Different pathways are activated depending on the stimulus leading to degeneration. Growth factor deprivation during development leads to activation the executor caspases 3 and 6 (Simon et al., 2012) through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, although its core protein Apaf1 does not seem to be required for this process (Cusack et al., 2013). On the other hand, a traumatic injury leads to reduced influx of NMNAT2 into the axon, which negatively affects the stability and function of mitochondria and leads to an increased calcium concentration (Wang et al., 2012). The effector caspase, caspase 6, is dispensable for this form of axonal degeneration (Vohra et al., 2010; Simon et al., 2012). Regulatory proteins such as the IAPs and also the proteasome seem to play a role in limiting the extent of activation to the degenerating part of the axon (Wang et al., 2012; Cusack et al., 2013; Unsain et al., 2013). (D) Simplified schematic of the main pro- and anti-apoptotic components. DISC, death-induced signaling complex. IAP, inhibitor of apoptosis protein. See Fig. 1 for details.
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fig3: Canonical and noncanonical functions of the apoptotic machinery. (A) The apoptotic machinery is not only involved in eliminating cells destined to die, but is also a central player in refining neuronal connectivity, by regulating synaptic transmission and by generating the adult connectivity through axon pruning (Luo and O’Leary, 2005; Hyman and Yuan, 2012). But how the canonical and noncanonical roles of the apoptotic machinery are interlinked and spatially restricted is not well understood. (B) In the adult nervous system, the pro-apoptotic proteins BAX, caspase 9, and caspase 3 promote weakening of synapses (long-term depression [LTD]; Li et al., 2010; Jiao and Li, 2011; Jo et al., 2011), while the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-Xl and the IAP survivin promote synaptic strengthening (long-term potentiation [LTP]; Li et al., 2008a; Iscru et al., 2013). It is unclear how the activation of these pathways is restricted to a single synapse, but a recent review suggested that the proteasomal degradation of activated caspases may prevent their diffusion (Hyman and Yuan, 2012). (C) Caspase activation is now known to be required for axon pruning during development to generate the adult refined connectivity (Luo and O’Leary, 2005; Simon et al., 2012). Different pathways are activated depending on the stimulus leading to degeneration. Growth factor deprivation during development leads to activation the executor caspases 3 and 6 (Simon et al., 2012) through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, although its core protein Apaf1 does not seem to be required for this process (Cusack et al., 2013). On the other hand, a traumatic injury leads to reduced influx of NMNAT2 into the axon, which negatively affects the stability and function of mitochondria and leads to an increased calcium concentration (Wang et al., 2012). The effector caspase, caspase 6, is dispensable for this form of axonal degeneration (Vohra et al., 2010; Simon et al., 2012). Regulatory proteins such as the IAPs and also the proteasome seem to play a role in limiting the extent of activation to the degenerating part of the axon (Wang et al., 2012; Cusack et al., 2013; Unsain et al., 2013). (D) Simplified schematic of the main pro- and anti-apoptotic components. DISC, death-induced signaling complex. IAP, inhibitor of apoptosis protein. See Fig. 1 for details.

Mentions: Strikingly, a series of recent studies showed that several caspases and components of the intrinsic pathway also affect normal synaptic physiology in adulthood (Fig. 3, A–D). Here, pro-apoptotic proteins are predominantly involved in weakening the synapses, whereas the anti-apoptotic proteins have been mainly associated with synaptic strengthening (Fig. 3 B). In particular, caspase 3 promotes long-term depression (LTD), a stimulation paradigm that results in a period of decreased synaptic transmission (Li et al., 2010), and also prevents long-term potentiation (LTP), the converse situation leading to strengthened synaptic transmission (Jo et al., 2011). Likewise, the proapoptotic BCL-2 family members BAX and BAD stimulate LTD (Jiao and Li, 2011). By contrast, the anti-apoptotic protein BCL-Xl increases synapse numbers and strength (H. Li et al., 2008), and the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family member survivin was reported to be involved in LTP in the hippocampus (Iscru et al., 2013) and in activity-dependent gene regulation (O’Riordan et al., 2008).


Cell biology in neuroscience: Death of developing neurons: new insights and implications for connectivity.

Dekkers MP, Nikoletopoulou V, Barde YA - J. Cell Biol. (2013)

Canonical and noncanonical functions of the apoptotic machinery. (A) The apoptotic machinery is not only involved in eliminating cells destined to die, but is also a central player in refining neuronal connectivity, by regulating synaptic transmission and by generating the adult connectivity through axon pruning (Luo and O’Leary, 2005; Hyman and Yuan, 2012). But how the canonical and noncanonical roles of the apoptotic machinery are interlinked and spatially restricted is not well understood. (B) In the adult nervous system, the pro-apoptotic proteins BAX, caspase 9, and caspase 3 promote weakening of synapses (long-term depression [LTD]; Li et al., 2010; Jiao and Li, 2011; Jo et al., 2011), while the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-Xl and the IAP survivin promote synaptic strengthening (long-term potentiation [LTP]; Li et al., 2008a; Iscru et al., 2013). It is unclear how the activation of these pathways is restricted to a single synapse, but a recent review suggested that the proteasomal degradation of activated caspases may prevent their diffusion (Hyman and Yuan, 2012). (C) Caspase activation is now known to be required for axon pruning during development to generate the adult refined connectivity (Luo and O’Leary, 2005; Simon et al., 2012). Different pathways are activated depending on the stimulus leading to degeneration. Growth factor deprivation during development leads to activation the executor caspases 3 and 6 (Simon et al., 2012) through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, although its core protein Apaf1 does not seem to be required for this process (Cusack et al., 2013). On the other hand, a traumatic injury leads to reduced influx of NMNAT2 into the axon, which negatively affects the stability and function of mitochondria and leads to an increased calcium concentration (Wang et al., 2012). The effector caspase, caspase 6, is dispensable for this form of axonal degeneration (Vohra et al., 2010; Simon et al., 2012). Regulatory proteins such as the IAPs and also the proteasome seem to play a role in limiting the extent of activation to the degenerating part of the axon (Wang et al., 2012; Cusack et al., 2013; Unsain et al., 2013). (D) Simplified schematic of the main pro- and anti-apoptotic components. DISC, death-induced signaling complex. IAP, inhibitor of apoptosis protein. See Fig. 1 for details.
© Copyright Policy - openaccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3824005&req=5

fig3: Canonical and noncanonical functions of the apoptotic machinery. (A) The apoptotic machinery is not only involved in eliminating cells destined to die, but is also a central player in refining neuronal connectivity, by regulating synaptic transmission and by generating the adult connectivity through axon pruning (Luo and O’Leary, 2005; Hyman and Yuan, 2012). But how the canonical and noncanonical roles of the apoptotic machinery are interlinked and spatially restricted is not well understood. (B) In the adult nervous system, the pro-apoptotic proteins BAX, caspase 9, and caspase 3 promote weakening of synapses (long-term depression [LTD]; Li et al., 2010; Jiao and Li, 2011; Jo et al., 2011), while the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-Xl and the IAP survivin promote synaptic strengthening (long-term potentiation [LTP]; Li et al., 2008a; Iscru et al., 2013). It is unclear how the activation of these pathways is restricted to a single synapse, but a recent review suggested that the proteasomal degradation of activated caspases may prevent their diffusion (Hyman and Yuan, 2012). (C) Caspase activation is now known to be required for axon pruning during development to generate the adult refined connectivity (Luo and O’Leary, 2005; Simon et al., 2012). Different pathways are activated depending on the stimulus leading to degeneration. Growth factor deprivation during development leads to activation the executor caspases 3 and 6 (Simon et al., 2012) through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, although its core protein Apaf1 does not seem to be required for this process (Cusack et al., 2013). On the other hand, a traumatic injury leads to reduced influx of NMNAT2 into the axon, which negatively affects the stability and function of mitochondria and leads to an increased calcium concentration (Wang et al., 2012). The effector caspase, caspase 6, is dispensable for this form of axonal degeneration (Vohra et al., 2010; Simon et al., 2012). Regulatory proteins such as the IAPs and also the proteasome seem to play a role in limiting the extent of activation to the degenerating part of the axon (Wang et al., 2012; Cusack et al., 2013; Unsain et al., 2013). (D) Simplified schematic of the main pro- and anti-apoptotic components. DISC, death-induced signaling complex. IAP, inhibitor of apoptosis protein. See Fig. 1 for details.
Mentions: Strikingly, a series of recent studies showed that several caspases and components of the intrinsic pathway also affect normal synaptic physiology in adulthood (Fig. 3, A–D). Here, pro-apoptotic proteins are predominantly involved in weakening the synapses, whereas the anti-apoptotic proteins have been mainly associated with synaptic strengthening (Fig. 3 B). In particular, caspase 3 promotes long-term depression (LTD), a stimulation paradigm that results in a period of decreased synaptic transmission (Li et al., 2010), and also prevents long-term potentiation (LTP), the converse situation leading to strengthened synaptic transmission (Jo et al., 2011). Likewise, the proapoptotic BCL-2 family members BAX and BAD stimulate LTD (Jiao and Li, 2011). By contrast, the anti-apoptotic protein BCL-Xl increases synapse numbers and strength (H. Li et al., 2008), and the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family member survivin was reported to be involved in LTP in the hippocampus (Iscru et al., 2013) and in activity-dependent gene regulation (O’Riordan et al., 2008).

Bottom Line: Recent discoveries now help to understand why only some developing neurons selectively depend on NGF.They also indicate that the survival of most neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) is not simply regulated by single growth factors like in the PNS.Additionally, components of the cell death machinery have begun to be recognized as regulators of selective axonal degeneration and synaptic function, thus playing a critical role in wiring up the nervous system.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Biozentrum, University of Basel, 4056 Basel, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
The concept that target tissues determine the survival of neurons has inspired much of the thinking on neuronal development in vertebrates, not least because it is supported by decades of research on nerve growth factor (NGF) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Recent discoveries now help to understand why only some developing neurons selectively depend on NGF. They also indicate that the survival of most neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) is not simply regulated by single growth factors like in the PNS. Additionally, components of the cell death machinery have begun to be recognized as regulators of selective axonal degeneration and synaptic function, thus playing a critical role in wiring up the nervous system.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus