Trophic factors and cell therapy to stimulate brain repair after ischaemic stroke.
Bottom Line: From a therapeutic viewpoint, reparative therapies that encourage cerebral plasticity are needed.However, even when promising results have been obtained in a wide range of experimental animal models and conditions these preliminary results have not yet demonstrated their clinical efficacy.Here, we focus on brain repair modulatory treatments for ischaemic stroke, that use trophic factors, drugs with trophic effects and stem cell therapy.
Affiliation: Department of Neurology and Stroke Centre, La Paz University Hospital, Neuroscience Area of IdiPAZ (Health Research Institute), Autónoma University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.Show MeSH
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Mentions: We should first consider that protection and repair mechanisms are activated and work together from the very beginning of cerebral ischaemia (Fig. 1). The accompanying hypoxia and glucose deprivation, cell death programs and immunological events of ischaemia are initiated to remove damaged cells and tissue debris and to prepare injured areas for repair processes [6–8] and as a response to injury, transcriptional programs associated with axonal sprouting, survival and myelin formation are activated and maintained from the very beginning [9, 10]. Research is now focused on how to modulate these processes to preserve all the structures that make up the neurovascular unit, including microvessels and pericytes (vascular protection), neurons and their axons (neuroprotection), astrocytes and other supportive cells such as oligodendroglia .
Affiliation: Department of Neurology and Stroke Centre, La Paz University Hospital, Neuroscience Area of IdiPAZ (Health Research Institute), Autónoma University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.