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Mitochondrial nutrients improve immune dysfunction in the type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.

Hao J, Shen W, Tian C, Liu Z, Ren J, Luo C, Long J, Sharman E, Liu J - J. Cell. Mol. Med. (2008)

Bottom Line: We first studied the effects of the combination of these four nutrients on immune function by examining cell proliferation in immune organs (spleen and thymus) and immunomodulating factors in the plasma.These effects are comparable to, or greater than, those of the anti-diabetic drug pioglitazone.These data suggest that a rational combination of mitochondrial-targeting nutrients may be effective in improving immune function in type 2 diabetes through enhancement of mitochondrial function, decreased oxidative damage, and delayed cell death in the immune organs and blood.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Nutritional Science, Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.

ABSTRACT
The development of type 2 diabetes is accompanied by decreased immune function and the mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesize that oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction may play an important role in the immune dysfunction in diabetes. In the present study, we investigated this hypothesis in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats by treatment with a combination of four mitochondrial-targeting nutrients, namely, R-alpha-lipoic acid, acetyl-L-carnitine, nicotinamide and biotin. We first studied the effects of the combination of these four nutrients on immune function by examining cell proliferation in immune organs (spleen and thymus) and immunomodulating factors in the plasma. We then examined, in the plasma and thymus, oxidative damage biomarkers, including lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, reactive oxygen species, calcium and antioxidant defence systems, mitochondrial potential and apoptosis-inducing factors (caspase 3, p53 and p21). We found that immune dysfunction in these animals is associated with increased oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction and that the nutrient treatment effectively elevated immune function, decreased oxidative damage, enhanced mitochondrial function and inhibited the elevation of apoptosis factors. These effects are comparable to, or greater than, those of the anti-diabetic drug pioglitazone. These data suggest that a rational combination of mitochondrial-targeting nutrients may be effective in improving immune function in type 2 diabetes through enhancement of mitochondrial function, decreased oxidative damage, and delayed cell death in the immune organs and blood.

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Effects of treatments on thymus and spleen cell proliferation and thymus index. (A) Proliferation of thymocytes; (B) Proliferation of splenocytes and (C) Thymus index. Data are means ± SEM of six animals (n = 6) in each group. *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01 versus Wistar group; #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01 versus Goto-Kakizaki (GK) untreated group.
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fig01: Effects of treatments on thymus and spleen cell proliferation and thymus index. (A) Proliferation of thymocytes; (B) Proliferation of splenocytes and (C) Thymus index. Data are means ± SEM of six animals (n = 6) in each group. *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01 versus Wistar group; #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01 versus Goto-Kakizaki (GK) untreated group.

Mentions: The proliferation of thymocytes and splenocytes of GK rats was significantly decreased compared to that of Wistar rats (Fig. 1A and B). At the end of the nutrient treatment, the low-dose group showed elevated proliferation of splenocytes and thymocytes (versus GK rats, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively), but the pioglitazone and the high-dose groups showed no significant effect.


Mitochondrial nutrients improve immune dysfunction in the type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.

Hao J, Shen W, Tian C, Liu Z, Ren J, Luo C, Long J, Sharman E, Liu J - J. Cell. Mol. Med. (2008)

Effects of treatments on thymus and spleen cell proliferation and thymus index. (A) Proliferation of thymocytes; (B) Proliferation of splenocytes and (C) Thymus index. Data are means ± SEM of six animals (n = 6) in each group. *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01 versus Wistar group; #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01 versus Goto-Kakizaki (GK) untreated group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3822877&req=5

fig01: Effects of treatments on thymus and spleen cell proliferation and thymus index. (A) Proliferation of thymocytes; (B) Proliferation of splenocytes and (C) Thymus index. Data are means ± SEM of six animals (n = 6) in each group. *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01 versus Wistar group; #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01 versus Goto-Kakizaki (GK) untreated group.
Mentions: The proliferation of thymocytes and splenocytes of GK rats was significantly decreased compared to that of Wistar rats (Fig. 1A and B). At the end of the nutrient treatment, the low-dose group showed elevated proliferation of splenocytes and thymocytes (versus GK rats, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively), but the pioglitazone and the high-dose groups showed no significant effect.

Bottom Line: We first studied the effects of the combination of these four nutrients on immune function by examining cell proliferation in immune organs (spleen and thymus) and immunomodulating factors in the plasma.These effects are comparable to, or greater than, those of the anti-diabetic drug pioglitazone.These data suggest that a rational combination of mitochondrial-targeting nutrients may be effective in improving immune function in type 2 diabetes through enhancement of mitochondrial function, decreased oxidative damage, and delayed cell death in the immune organs and blood.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Nutritional Science, Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.

ABSTRACT
The development of type 2 diabetes is accompanied by decreased immune function and the mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesize that oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction may play an important role in the immune dysfunction in diabetes. In the present study, we investigated this hypothesis in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats by treatment with a combination of four mitochondrial-targeting nutrients, namely, R-alpha-lipoic acid, acetyl-L-carnitine, nicotinamide and biotin. We first studied the effects of the combination of these four nutrients on immune function by examining cell proliferation in immune organs (spleen and thymus) and immunomodulating factors in the plasma. We then examined, in the plasma and thymus, oxidative damage biomarkers, including lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, reactive oxygen species, calcium and antioxidant defence systems, mitochondrial potential and apoptosis-inducing factors (caspase 3, p53 and p21). We found that immune dysfunction in these animals is associated with increased oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction and that the nutrient treatment effectively elevated immune function, decreased oxidative damage, enhanced mitochondrial function and inhibited the elevation of apoptosis factors. These effects are comparable to, or greater than, those of the anti-diabetic drug pioglitazone. These data suggest that a rational combination of mitochondrial-targeting nutrients may be effective in improving immune function in type 2 diabetes through enhancement of mitochondrial function, decreased oxidative damage, and delayed cell death in the immune organs and blood.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus