Human cardiomyocyte progenitor cells: a short history of nearly everything.
Bottom Line: In the past 10 years, stem cells from different sources have been under intense investigation and, as a result, a multitude of studies have been published on the identification, isolation, and characterization, of cardiovascular progenitor cells and repair in different animal models.However, relatively few cardiovascular progenitor populations have been identified in human hearts, including, but not limited to, cardiosphere-derived cells, cKit+ human cardiac stem cells , Isl1+ cardiovascular progenitors, and, in our lab, cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (CMPCs).Here, we aim to provide a comprehensive summary of the past findings and present challenges for future therapeutic potential of CMPCs.
Affiliation: Department of Cardiology, Division Heart & Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Similar to the Isl1+ cardiovascular progenitors , CMPCs can be found in the atria, atrial appendages, and, in addition, atrioventricular region, intra-atrial septum and scattered within the subepicardial layer of the ventricles . In particular, atrial appendages from adult human hearts, obtained as surgical waste, are routinely used to obtain adult CMPCs [5,6]. To isolate CMPCs from human foetal and adult hearts, we have developed two different protocols, based on enzymatic dissociation of cardiac tissue followed by clonal expansion or by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) using an epitope that is recognized by a Sca-1 antibody . We obtained a highly proliferating population of cells that express Isl1, cKit, Nkx2.5, Gata4, Mef2c, CD31, Endoglin (CD105), and telomerase, but do not express haematopoietic or mesenchymal stem-cell markers or cardiomyocyte sarcomeric proteins [4,5]. In vitro, CMPCs appear as spindle-shaped cells with a high nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio, which is typical for progenitor cells (Fig. 1A).
Affiliation: Department of Cardiology, Division Heart & Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.