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Cytokines, chaperones and neuroinflammatory responses in heroin-related death: what can we learn from different patterns of cellular expression?

Neri M, Panata L, Bacci M, Fiore C, Riezzo I, Turillazzi E, Fineschi V - Int J Mol Sci (2013)

Bottom Line: The aim of this study is to clarify the correlation between intravenous heroin administration in heroin related death and the neuroinflammatory response.Findings demonstrated that morphine induces inflammatory response and cytokine release.In particular, oxygen-regulated protein 150, cyclooxygenase-2, heat shock protein 70, IL-6 and IL-15 cytokines were over-expressed with different patterns of cellular expression.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Forensic Pathology, University of Foggia, Ospedale Colonnello D'Avanzo, Viale degli Aviatori 1, Foggia 71100, Italy. vfinesc@tin.it.

ABSTRACT
Heroin (3,6-diacetylmorphine) has various effects on the central nervous system with several neuropathological alterations including hypoxic-ischemic brain damage from respiratory depressing effects and neuroinflammatory response. Both of these mechanisms induce the release of cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory mediators by the activation of many cell types such as leucocytes and endothelial and glial cells, especially microglia, the predominant immunocompetent cell type within the central nervous system. The aim of this study is to clarify the correlation between intravenous heroin administration in heroin related death and the neuroinflammatory response. We selected 45 cases among autopsies executed for heroin-related death (358 total cases); immunohistochemical studies and Western blotting analyses were used to investigate the expression of brain markers such as tumor necrosis factor-α, oxygen-regulated protein 150, (interleukins) IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, cyclooxygenase-2, heat shock protein 70, and CD68 (MAC387). Findings demonstrated that morphine induces inflammatory response and cytokine release. In particular, oxygen-regulated protein 150, cyclooxygenase-2, heat shock protein 70, IL-6 and IL-15 cytokines were over-expressed with different patterns of cellular expression.

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Western blotting quantitatively measured by densitometry, confirming the reactions of intense positivity for COX-2. Densitometry using cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts from frozen brain for each group, confirming the weak positivity reactions for heroin-related group. The higher result is on line (heroin group) C. Marker’s lines on the right side of the blot lines.
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f10-ijms-14-19831: Western blotting quantitatively measured by densitometry, confirming the reactions of intense positivity for COX-2. Densitometry using cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts from frozen brain for each group, confirming the weak positivity reactions for heroin-related group. The higher result is on line (heroin group) C. Marker’s lines on the right side of the blot lines.

Mentions: Western blot analysis was performed in order to confirm the results of the immunohistochemical analysis. Protein extracts from samples of frozen brain of both groups of heroin-related death and controls were used. Both cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts were prepared from the same amount of brain samples (in particular brainstem samples) and subjected to immunoblot analysis with anti-TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2. There was a perfect correspondence between immunohistochemical and blotting results, which were measured quantitatively by densitometry, confirming the strong positivity for TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2. (Figures 8–10)


Cytokines, chaperones and neuroinflammatory responses in heroin-related death: what can we learn from different patterns of cellular expression?

Neri M, Panata L, Bacci M, Fiore C, Riezzo I, Turillazzi E, Fineschi V - Int J Mol Sci (2013)

Western blotting quantitatively measured by densitometry, confirming the reactions of intense positivity for COX-2. Densitometry using cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts from frozen brain for each group, confirming the weak positivity reactions for heroin-related group. The higher result is on line (heroin group) C. Marker’s lines on the right side of the blot lines.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3821589&req=5

f10-ijms-14-19831: Western blotting quantitatively measured by densitometry, confirming the reactions of intense positivity for COX-2. Densitometry using cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts from frozen brain for each group, confirming the weak positivity reactions for heroin-related group. The higher result is on line (heroin group) C. Marker’s lines on the right side of the blot lines.
Mentions: Western blot analysis was performed in order to confirm the results of the immunohistochemical analysis. Protein extracts from samples of frozen brain of both groups of heroin-related death and controls were used. Both cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts were prepared from the same amount of brain samples (in particular brainstem samples) and subjected to immunoblot analysis with anti-TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2. There was a perfect correspondence between immunohistochemical and blotting results, which were measured quantitatively by densitometry, confirming the strong positivity for TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2. (Figures 8–10)

Bottom Line: The aim of this study is to clarify the correlation between intravenous heroin administration in heroin related death and the neuroinflammatory response.Findings demonstrated that morphine induces inflammatory response and cytokine release.In particular, oxygen-regulated protein 150, cyclooxygenase-2, heat shock protein 70, IL-6 and IL-15 cytokines were over-expressed with different patterns of cellular expression.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Forensic Pathology, University of Foggia, Ospedale Colonnello D'Avanzo, Viale degli Aviatori 1, Foggia 71100, Italy. vfinesc@tin.it.

ABSTRACT
Heroin (3,6-diacetylmorphine) has various effects on the central nervous system with several neuropathological alterations including hypoxic-ischemic brain damage from respiratory depressing effects and neuroinflammatory response. Both of these mechanisms induce the release of cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory mediators by the activation of many cell types such as leucocytes and endothelial and glial cells, especially microglia, the predominant immunocompetent cell type within the central nervous system. The aim of this study is to clarify the correlation between intravenous heroin administration in heroin related death and the neuroinflammatory response. We selected 45 cases among autopsies executed for heroin-related death (358 total cases); immunohistochemical studies and Western blotting analyses were used to investigate the expression of brain markers such as tumor necrosis factor-α, oxygen-regulated protein 150, (interleukins) IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, cyclooxygenase-2, heat shock protein 70, and CD68 (MAC387). Findings demonstrated that morphine induces inflammatory response and cytokine release. In particular, oxygen-regulated protein 150, cyclooxygenase-2, heat shock protein 70, IL-6 and IL-15 cytokines were over-expressed with different patterns of cellular expression.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus