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Overview of Botanical Status in EU, USA, and Thailand.

Jiratchariyakul W, Mahady GB - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2013)

Bottom Line: The botanical status in EU, USA, and Thailand is different owing to the regulatory status, the progress of science, and the influence of culture and society.In the EU, botanicals are positioned as herbal medicinal products and food supplements, in the US they are regulated as dietary supplements but often used as traditional medicines, and in Thailand, they are regulated and used as traditional medicines.Information for some of the most popular botanicals from each country is included in this review.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Sri Ayutthaya Road, Rajthevi, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.

ABSTRACT
The botanical status in EU, USA, and Thailand is different owing to the regulatory status, the progress of science, and the influence of culture and society. In the EU, botanicals are positioned as herbal medicinal products and food supplements, in the US they are regulated as dietary supplements but often used as traditional medicines, and in Thailand, they are regulated and used as traditional medicines. Information for some of the most popular botanicals from each country is included in this review.

No MeSH data available.


Cucurbitacins from Momordica charantia [39].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3818839&req=5

fig11: Cucurbitacins from Momordica charantia [39].

Mentions: Momordica charantia (bitter gourd, bitter melon) has been used as medicine for thousand years in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In India, the fruit has been used in ayurvedic medicine as remedies for diabetes, liver disease, gout, and arthritis. In Thai medicine, the leaf has been used as one ingredient in “green recipe,” which relieves fever and the root as remedies for liver disease and blood disorder [43]. Scientific research on M. charantia has been continuously performed since 1962, when the antidiabetic substance, charantin, was discovered by Lotlikar and Rao [44]. In 1965 Sucrow identified the structure of charantin as a mixture of sitosteryl- and 5, 25 stigmastadiene-3β-ol-D-glucoside (in the ratio 1 : 1, Figure 10). Baldwa et al. isolated the insulin-like compound from the fruit in the year 1977 [45]. Khanna et al. identified the insulin-like compound as a polypeptide with the molecular weight of 11 kD, 166 amino acids, and named it polypeptide-P [39]. The plant also contained cucurbitacins (Figure 11), and they were momordicosides, momordicines, karavilosides, and charantosides [46]. These cucurbitacins have antidiabetic effects [47]. M. charantia fruit contained several antidiabetic compounds and lowered the blood sugar via several mechanisms such as the stimulation of insulin secretion from pancreas, the decrease of sugar formation from the liver, the increase of glycolysis, the renewal of pancreatic β cells, the increase of insulin sensitivity, the increase of glucose tolerance, and the inhibition of α-glucosidase [48–52]. M. charantia affects carbohydrate and lipid metabolism through the stimulation of thyroxine and AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) [53]. It can also suppress the insulin-signaling pathway resulting in the increase of insulin sensitivity [54].


Overview of Botanical Status in EU, USA, and Thailand.

Jiratchariyakul W, Mahady GB - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2013)

Cucurbitacins from Momordica charantia [39].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3818839&req=5

fig11: Cucurbitacins from Momordica charantia [39].
Mentions: Momordica charantia (bitter gourd, bitter melon) has been used as medicine for thousand years in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In India, the fruit has been used in ayurvedic medicine as remedies for diabetes, liver disease, gout, and arthritis. In Thai medicine, the leaf has been used as one ingredient in “green recipe,” which relieves fever and the root as remedies for liver disease and blood disorder [43]. Scientific research on M. charantia has been continuously performed since 1962, when the antidiabetic substance, charantin, was discovered by Lotlikar and Rao [44]. In 1965 Sucrow identified the structure of charantin as a mixture of sitosteryl- and 5, 25 stigmastadiene-3β-ol-D-glucoside (in the ratio 1 : 1, Figure 10). Baldwa et al. isolated the insulin-like compound from the fruit in the year 1977 [45]. Khanna et al. identified the insulin-like compound as a polypeptide with the molecular weight of 11 kD, 166 amino acids, and named it polypeptide-P [39]. The plant also contained cucurbitacins (Figure 11), and they were momordicosides, momordicines, karavilosides, and charantosides [46]. These cucurbitacins have antidiabetic effects [47]. M. charantia fruit contained several antidiabetic compounds and lowered the blood sugar via several mechanisms such as the stimulation of insulin secretion from pancreas, the decrease of sugar formation from the liver, the increase of glycolysis, the renewal of pancreatic β cells, the increase of insulin sensitivity, the increase of glucose tolerance, and the inhibition of α-glucosidase [48–52]. M. charantia affects carbohydrate and lipid metabolism through the stimulation of thyroxine and AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) [53]. It can also suppress the insulin-signaling pathway resulting in the increase of insulin sensitivity [54].

Bottom Line: The botanical status in EU, USA, and Thailand is different owing to the regulatory status, the progress of science, and the influence of culture and society.In the EU, botanicals are positioned as herbal medicinal products and food supplements, in the US they are regulated as dietary supplements but often used as traditional medicines, and in Thailand, they are regulated and used as traditional medicines.Information for some of the most popular botanicals from each country is included in this review.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Sri Ayutthaya Road, Rajthevi, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.

ABSTRACT
The botanical status in EU, USA, and Thailand is different owing to the regulatory status, the progress of science, and the influence of culture and society. In the EU, botanicals are positioned as herbal medicinal products and food supplements, in the US they are regulated as dietary supplements but often used as traditional medicines, and in Thailand, they are regulated and used as traditional medicines. Information for some of the most popular botanicals from each country is included in this review.

No MeSH data available.