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Langerhans cells and their role in oral mucosal diseases.

Upadhyay J, Upadhyay RB, Agrawal P, Jaitley S, Shekhar R - N Am J Med Sci (2013)

Bottom Line: Dendritic cells are arguably the most potent antigen-presenting cells and may be the only cells capable of initiating the adaptive immune response.The epithelial residents of dendritic cells are Langerhans cells, which serve as the "sentinels" of the mucosa, altering the immune system not only to pathogen entry but also of tolerance to self antigen and commensal microbes.Review focuses on the role of antigen-presenting cells in particular Langerhans cells to better understand the mechanisms underlying immune responses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, K.D. Dental College and Hospital, Mathura, India.

ABSTRACT
Dendritic cells are arguably the most potent antigen-presenting cells and may be the only cells capable of initiating the adaptive immune response. The epithelial residents of dendritic cells are Langerhans cells, which serve as the "sentinels" of the mucosa, altering the immune system not only to pathogen entry but also of tolerance to self antigen and commensal microbes. Oral mucosal Langerhans cells are capable of engaging and internalizing a wide variety of pathogens and have been found responsive to nickel in patients with nickel allergies, oral Candida species, oral lichen planus, lichenoid drug eruptions, graft versus host diseases, periodontal diseases median rhomboid glossitis, human immunodeficiency virus infection, hairy leukoplakia of the tongue, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Review focuses on the role of antigen-presenting cells in particular Langerhans cells to better understand the mechanisms underlying immune responses. In this review, comprehensive detail about mucosal diseases has been compiled using the PubMed database and through textbooks.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representation of LCs migration from the oral mucosa to the regional lymph node. The right side of the scheme shows the functional properties of mature and immature LCs
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Figure 3: Schematic representation of LCs migration from the oral mucosa to the regional lymph node. The right side of the scheme shows the functional properties of mature and immature LCs

Mentions: It is a well-established concept that LCs constitute a mobile cell population with epidermal residence only one step in their life cycle. The migrating pathway is explained in [Figure 3]. LCs migrating away from the epidermis could either be replenished, by circulating LC precursors, or form a pool of self generating cells with a relatively low turnover.[26] Although several studies have suggested a relatively slow turnover of LCs, their actual lifespan remains elusive in humans, the half-life of epidermal LCs ranges from 53 to 78 days (i.e., 2-3 months), in murine skin.[27] However, it is yet unknown whether LCs die by random or by senility. The pool of LCs migrating out of the cutaneous compartment are always present in the afferent lymph that access the T-cell area, but not in efferent lymph, thus indicating that most of the migrating DCs die after their arrival in lymphoid tissues.[28]


Langerhans cells and their role in oral mucosal diseases.

Upadhyay J, Upadhyay RB, Agrawal P, Jaitley S, Shekhar R - N Am J Med Sci (2013)

Schematic representation of LCs migration from the oral mucosa to the regional lymph node. The right side of the scheme shows the functional properties of mature and immature LCs
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3818822&req=5

Figure 3: Schematic representation of LCs migration from the oral mucosa to the regional lymph node. The right side of the scheme shows the functional properties of mature and immature LCs
Mentions: It is a well-established concept that LCs constitute a mobile cell population with epidermal residence only one step in their life cycle. The migrating pathway is explained in [Figure 3]. LCs migrating away from the epidermis could either be replenished, by circulating LC precursors, or form a pool of self generating cells with a relatively low turnover.[26] Although several studies have suggested a relatively slow turnover of LCs, their actual lifespan remains elusive in humans, the half-life of epidermal LCs ranges from 53 to 78 days (i.e., 2-3 months), in murine skin.[27] However, it is yet unknown whether LCs die by random or by senility. The pool of LCs migrating out of the cutaneous compartment are always present in the afferent lymph that access the T-cell area, but not in efferent lymph, thus indicating that most of the migrating DCs die after their arrival in lymphoid tissues.[28]

Bottom Line: Dendritic cells are arguably the most potent antigen-presenting cells and may be the only cells capable of initiating the adaptive immune response.The epithelial residents of dendritic cells are Langerhans cells, which serve as the "sentinels" of the mucosa, altering the immune system not only to pathogen entry but also of tolerance to self antigen and commensal microbes.Review focuses on the role of antigen-presenting cells in particular Langerhans cells to better understand the mechanisms underlying immune responses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, K.D. Dental College and Hospital, Mathura, India.

ABSTRACT
Dendritic cells are arguably the most potent antigen-presenting cells and may be the only cells capable of initiating the adaptive immune response. The epithelial residents of dendritic cells are Langerhans cells, which serve as the "sentinels" of the mucosa, altering the immune system not only to pathogen entry but also of tolerance to self antigen and commensal microbes. Oral mucosal Langerhans cells are capable of engaging and internalizing a wide variety of pathogens and have been found responsive to nickel in patients with nickel allergies, oral Candida species, oral lichen planus, lichenoid drug eruptions, graft versus host diseases, periodontal diseases median rhomboid glossitis, human immunodeficiency virus infection, hairy leukoplakia of the tongue, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Review focuses on the role of antigen-presenting cells in particular Langerhans cells to better understand the mechanisms underlying immune responses. In this review, comprehensive detail about mucosal diseases has been compiled using the PubMed database and through textbooks.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus