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The eye-voice lead during oral reading in developmental dyslexia.

De Luca M, Pontillo M, Primativo S, Spinelli D, Zoccolotti P - Front Hum Neurosci (2013)

Bottom Line: Their slowness was characterized by a great number of silent pauses and sounding-out behaviors and a small lengthening of word articulation times.We propose that referring to proportional differences allows for a parsimonious interpretation of the reading deficit in terms of a single deficit in word decoding.The possible source of this deficit may call for visual or phonological mechanisms, including Goswami's temporal sampling framework.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neuropsychology Unit, IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT
In reading aloud, the eye typically leads over voice position. In the present study, eye movements and voice utterances were simultaneously recorded and tracked during the reading of a meaningful text to evaluate the eye-voice lead in 16 dyslexic and 16 same-age control readers. Dyslexic children were slower than control peers in reading texts. Their slowness was characterized by a great number of silent pauses and sounding-out behaviors and a small lengthening of word articulation times. Regarding eye movements, dyslexic readers made many more eye fixations (and generally smaller rightward saccades) than controls. Eye movements and voice (which were shifted in time because of the eye-voice lead) were synchronized in dyslexic readers as well as controls. As expected, the eye-voice lead was significantly smaller in dyslexic than control readers, confirming early observations by Buswell (1921) and Fairbanks (1937). The eye-voice lead was significantly correlated with several eye movements and voice parameters, particularly number of fixations and silent pauses. The difference in performance between dyslexic and control readers across several eye and voice parameters was expressed by a ratio of about 2. We propose that referring to proportional differences allows for a parsimonious interpretation of the reading deficit in terms of a single deficit in word decoding. The possible source of this deficit may call for visual or phonological mechanisms, including Goswami's temporal sampling framework.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Eye and voice data are presented for a child with severe dyslexia. Similar to Figures 5A,B, the pairs of fixated grapheme/uttered phoneme positions are plotted as a function of time in panel (A). Note that the scale on the abscissa of panel (A) is twice that of Figures 5A,B, therefore the slope indicates a much slower reading rate than that of the child with mild dyslexia represented in Figure 5B. In panel (B) (as in Figures 5C,D) the eye-voice lead is represented as a function of time as letter difference between pairs of simultaneous grapheme and phoneme positions. The (C) inset (obtained by zooming on the marked area of plot A) represents a long silent pause made by the child, during which eye fixation scanning is characterized by eight rightward saccades and three regressions in the word “stupende” (English translation: “wonderful”) before pronouncing it. The top part of the inset represents the spectral image of the audio track corresponding to the time interval represented in the bottom part, which corresponds to the pattern of fixations made on the word. Note that both the second and the fifth fixations (at letter position number 45) follow a regressive eye movement that brings the gaze to the inter-word blank space.
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Figure 6: Eye and voice data are presented for a child with severe dyslexia. Similar to Figures 5A,B, the pairs of fixated grapheme/uttered phoneme positions are plotted as a function of time in panel (A). Note that the scale on the abscissa of panel (A) is twice that of Figures 5A,B, therefore the slope indicates a much slower reading rate than that of the child with mild dyslexia represented in Figure 5B. In panel (B) (as in Figures 5C,D) the eye-voice lead is represented as a function of time as letter difference between pairs of simultaneous grapheme and phoneme positions. The (C) inset (obtained by zooming on the marked area of plot A) represents a long silent pause made by the child, during which eye fixation scanning is characterized by eight rightward saccades and three regressions in the word “stupende” (English translation: “wonderful”) before pronouncing it. The top part of the inset represents the spectral image of the audio track corresponding to the time interval represented in the bottom part, which corresponds to the pattern of fixations made on the word. Note that both the second and the fifth fixations (at letter position number 45) follow a regressive eye movement that brings the gaze to the inter-word blank space.

Mentions: Figure 5 illustrates data for a control reader (left) and a child with mild dyslexia (right), respectively. A third example (Figure 6) reports data of a particularly severe case of dyslexia.


The eye-voice lead during oral reading in developmental dyslexia.

De Luca M, Pontillo M, Primativo S, Spinelli D, Zoccolotti P - Front Hum Neurosci (2013)

Eye and voice data are presented for a child with severe dyslexia. Similar to Figures 5A,B, the pairs of fixated grapheme/uttered phoneme positions are plotted as a function of time in panel (A). Note that the scale on the abscissa of panel (A) is twice that of Figures 5A,B, therefore the slope indicates a much slower reading rate than that of the child with mild dyslexia represented in Figure 5B. In panel (B) (as in Figures 5C,D) the eye-voice lead is represented as a function of time as letter difference between pairs of simultaneous grapheme and phoneme positions. The (C) inset (obtained by zooming on the marked area of plot A) represents a long silent pause made by the child, during which eye fixation scanning is characterized by eight rightward saccades and three regressions in the word “stupende” (English translation: “wonderful”) before pronouncing it. The top part of the inset represents the spectral image of the audio track corresponding to the time interval represented in the bottom part, which corresponds to the pattern of fixations made on the word. Note that both the second and the fifth fixations (at letter position number 45) follow a regressive eye movement that brings the gaze to the inter-word blank space.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3818695&req=5

Figure 6: Eye and voice data are presented for a child with severe dyslexia. Similar to Figures 5A,B, the pairs of fixated grapheme/uttered phoneme positions are plotted as a function of time in panel (A). Note that the scale on the abscissa of panel (A) is twice that of Figures 5A,B, therefore the slope indicates a much slower reading rate than that of the child with mild dyslexia represented in Figure 5B. In panel (B) (as in Figures 5C,D) the eye-voice lead is represented as a function of time as letter difference between pairs of simultaneous grapheme and phoneme positions. The (C) inset (obtained by zooming on the marked area of plot A) represents a long silent pause made by the child, during which eye fixation scanning is characterized by eight rightward saccades and three regressions in the word “stupende” (English translation: “wonderful”) before pronouncing it. The top part of the inset represents the spectral image of the audio track corresponding to the time interval represented in the bottom part, which corresponds to the pattern of fixations made on the word. Note that both the second and the fifth fixations (at letter position number 45) follow a regressive eye movement that brings the gaze to the inter-word blank space.
Mentions: Figure 5 illustrates data for a control reader (left) and a child with mild dyslexia (right), respectively. A third example (Figure 6) reports data of a particularly severe case of dyslexia.

Bottom Line: Their slowness was characterized by a great number of silent pauses and sounding-out behaviors and a small lengthening of word articulation times.We propose that referring to proportional differences allows for a parsimonious interpretation of the reading deficit in terms of a single deficit in word decoding.The possible source of this deficit may call for visual or phonological mechanisms, including Goswami's temporal sampling framework.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neuropsychology Unit, IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT
In reading aloud, the eye typically leads over voice position. In the present study, eye movements and voice utterances were simultaneously recorded and tracked during the reading of a meaningful text to evaluate the eye-voice lead in 16 dyslexic and 16 same-age control readers. Dyslexic children were slower than control peers in reading texts. Their slowness was characterized by a great number of silent pauses and sounding-out behaviors and a small lengthening of word articulation times. Regarding eye movements, dyslexic readers made many more eye fixations (and generally smaller rightward saccades) than controls. Eye movements and voice (which were shifted in time because of the eye-voice lead) were synchronized in dyslexic readers as well as controls. As expected, the eye-voice lead was significantly smaller in dyslexic than control readers, confirming early observations by Buswell (1921) and Fairbanks (1937). The eye-voice lead was significantly correlated with several eye movements and voice parameters, particularly number of fixations and silent pauses. The difference in performance between dyslexic and control readers across several eye and voice parameters was expressed by a ratio of about 2. We propose that referring to proportional differences allows for a parsimonious interpretation of the reading deficit in terms of a single deficit in word decoding. The possible source of this deficit may call for visual or phonological mechanisms, including Goswami's temporal sampling framework.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus