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A multilocus phylogeny of the world Sycoecinae fig wasps (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae).

Cruaud A, Underhill JG, Huguin M, Genson G, Jabbour-Zahab R, Tolley KA, Rasplus JY, van Noort S - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: We therefore proposed a new classification for the subfamily.Comparisons of our results with fig phylogenies showed that, despite sycoecines being internally ovipositing wasps host-switches are common incidents in their evolutionary history.Finally, by studying the evolutionary properties of the markers we used and profiling their phylogenetic informativeness, we predicted their utility for resolving phylogenetic relationships of Chalcidoidea at various taxonomic levels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: INRA, UMR1062 CBGP Centre de Biologie pour la Gestion des Populations, Montferrier-sur-Lez, France.

ABSTRACT
The Sycoecinae is one of five chalcid subfamilies of fig wasps that are mostly dependent on Ficus inflorescences for reproduction. Here, we analysed two mitochondrial (COI, Cytb) and four nuclear genes (ITS2, EF-1α, RpL27a, mago nashi) from a worldwide sample of 56 sycoecine species. Various alignment and partitioning strategies were used to test the stability of major clades. All topologies estimated using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were similar and well resolved but did not support the existing classification. A high degree of morphological convergence was highlighted and several species appeared best described as species complexes. We therefore proposed a new classification for the subfamily. Our analyses revealed several cases of probable speciation on the same host trees (up to 8 closely related species on one single tree of F. sumatrana), which raises the question of how resource partitioning occurs to avoid competitive exclusion. Comparisons of our results with fig phylogenies showed that, despite sycoecines being internally ovipositing wasps host-switches are common incidents in their evolutionary history. Finally, by studying the evolutionary properties of the markers we used and profiling their phylogenetic informativeness, we predicted their utility for resolving phylogenetic relationships of Chalcidoidea at various taxonomic levels.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Compared phylogenies of the Afrotropical sycoecine fig wasps (this study) and their Ficus hosts(adapted from Rønsted et al. [94] and Renoult et al. [95]) .
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pone-0079291-g006: Compared phylogenies of the Afrotropical sycoecine fig wasps (this study) and their Ficus hosts(adapted from Rønsted et al. [94] and Renoult et al. [95]) .

Mentions: Ostiolar morphology prevents entry into the fig cavity for wasps that are not specifically adapted [14,83,84]. Externaly ovipositing fig wasps do not have to conform to the morphological adaptations required to enter the fig cavity through a host-specific ostiole. Therefore, internally ovipositing wasps are thought to be highly host specific and less likely to experience host shifts than the externally ovipositing wasps [1,5,46,85]. However, these ideas are still contentious. Recent studies have shown that some externally ovipositing fig wasps may be highly host specific [5,86–88] and could have cospeciated with their host figs [86,87] but see 89,90. Overall, we lack extensive data on non-pollinating fig wasps host specificity and further cophylogenetic studies on representative samplings of both figs and wasps are required. Our results strongly suggest that strict cospeciation has not shaped the evolutionary history of both sycoecines and their host Ficus (Figure 6). It appears that the constraints of internal oviposition may not be enough to prevent host-switching events. However, further studies are needed to uncover the fine evolutionary history of the partners. These should especially focus attention on species that are associated with numerous fig hosts, the majority of which fall within Ficus subsection Chlamydodorae.


A multilocus phylogeny of the world Sycoecinae fig wasps (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae).

Cruaud A, Underhill JG, Huguin M, Genson G, Jabbour-Zahab R, Tolley KA, Rasplus JY, van Noort S - PLoS ONE (2013)

Compared phylogenies of the Afrotropical sycoecine fig wasps (this study) and their Ficus hosts(adapted from Rønsted et al. [94] and Renoult et al. [95]) .
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3818460&req=5

pone-0079291-g006: Compared phylogenies of the Afrotropical sycoecine fig wasps (this study) and their Ficus hosts(adapted from Rønsted et al. [94] and Renoult et al. [95]) .
Mentions: Ostiolar morphology prevents entry into the fig cavity for wasps that are not specifically adapted [14,83,84]. Externaly ovipositing fig wasps do not have to conform to the morphological adaptations required to enter the fig cavity through a host-specific ostiole. Therefore, internally ovipositing wasps are thought to be highly host specific and less likely to experience host shifts than the externally ovipositing wasps [1,5,46,85]. However, these ideas are still contentious. Recent studies have shown that some externally ovipositing fig wasps may be highly host specific [5,86–88] and could have cospeciated with their host figs [86,87] but see 89,90. Overall, we lack extensive data on non-pollinating fig wasps host specificity and further cophylogenetic studies on representative samplings of both figs and wasps are required. Our results strongly suggest that strict cospeciation has not shaped the evolutionary history of both sycoecines and their host Ficus (Figure 6). It appears that the constraints of internal oviposition may not be enough to prevent host-switching events. However, further studies are needed to uncover the fine evolutionary history of the partners. These should especially focus attention on species that are associated with numerous fig hosts, the majority of which fall within Ficus subsection Chlamydodorae.

Bottom Line: We therefore proposed a new classification for the subfamily.Comparisons of our results with fig phylogenies showed that, despite sycoecines being internally ovipositing wasps host-switches are common incidents in their evolutionary history.Finally, by studying the evolutionary properties of the markers we used and profiling their phylogenetic informativeness, we predicted their utility for resolving phylogenetic relationships of Chalcidoidea at various taxonomic levels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: INRA, UMR1062 CBGP Centre de Biologie pour la Gestion des Populations, Montferrier-sur-Lez, France.

ABSTRACT
The Sycoecinae is one of five chalcid subfamilies of fig wasps that are mostly dependent on Ficus inflorescences for reproduction. Here, we analysed two mitochondrial (COI, Cytb) and four nuclear genes (ITS2, EF-1α, RpL27a, mago nashi) from a worldwide sample of 56 sycoecine species. Various alignment and partitioning strategies were used to test the stability of major clades. All topologies estimated using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were similar and well resolved but did not support the existing classification. A high degree of morphological convergence was highlighted and several species appeared best described as species complexes. We therefore proposed a new classification for the subfamily. Our analyses revealed several cases of probable speciation on the same host trees (up to 8 closely related species on one single tree of F. sumatrana), which raises the question of how resource partitioning occurs to avoid competitive exclusion. Comparisons of our results with fig phylogenies showed that, despite sycoecines being internally ovipositing wasps host-switches are common incidents in their evolutionary history. Finally, by studying the evolutionary properties of the markers we used and profiling their phylogenetic informativeness, we predicted their utility for resolving phylogenetic relationships of Chalcidoidea at various taxonomic levels.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus