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A multilocus phylogeny of the world Sycoecinae fig wasps (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae).

Cruaud A, Underhill JG, Huguin M, Genson G, Jabbour-Zahab R, Tolley KA, Rasplus JY, van Noort S - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: We therefore proposed a new classification for the subfamily.Comparisons of our results with fig phylogenies showed that, despite sycoecines being internally ovipositing wasps host-switches are common incidents in their evolutionary history.Finally, by studying the evolutionary properties of the markers we used and profiling their phylogenetic informativeness, we predicted their utility for resolving phylogenetic relationships of Chalcidoidea at various taxonomic levels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: INRA, UMR1062 CBGP Centre de Biologie pour la Gestion des Populations, Montferrier-sur-Lez, France.

ABSTRACT
The Sycoecinae is one of five chalcid subfamilies of fig wasps that are mostly dependent on Ficus inflorescences for reproduction. Here, we analysed two mitochondrial (COI, Cytb) and four nuclear genes (ITS2, EF-1α, RpL27a, mago nashi) from a worldwide sample of 56 sycoecine species. Various alignment and partitioning strategies were used to test the stability of major clades. All topologies estimated using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were similar and well resolved but did not support the existing classification. A high degree of morphological convergence was highlighted and several species appeared best described as species complexes. We therefore proposed a new classification for the subfamily. Our analyses revealed several cases of probable speciation on the same host trees (up to 8 closely related species on one single tree of F. sumatrana), which raises the question of how resource partitioning occurs to avoid competitive exclusion. Comparisons of our results with fig phylogenies showed that, despite sycoecines being internally ovipositing wasps host-switches are common incidents in their evolutionary history. Finally, by studying the evolutionary properties of the markers we used and profiling their phylogenetic informativeness, we predicted their utility for resolving phylogenetic relationships of Chalcidoidea at various taxonomic levels.

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Cladograms of relationships among the Sycoecinae obtained from the MAFFT alignment of the combined dataset under three different alignment strategies and two partitioning schemes.The corresponding ML and Bayesian trees are given in Figures 1, S7-S12. Nodes with BP support < 70% have been collapsed and BP supports for main clades are indicated at nodes. Uppercase letters refer to clades discussed in the text (see also Figure 1). The dashed line indicates the only taxon with a conflicting position among trees (see text).
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pone-0079291-g004: Cladograms of relationships among the Sycoecinae obtained from the MAFFT alignment of the combined dataset under three different alignment strategies and two partitioning schemes.The corresponding ML and Bayesian trees are given in Figures 1, S7-S12. Nodes with BP support < 70% have been collapsed and BP supports for main clades are indicated at nodes. Uppercase letters refer to clades discussed in the text (see also Figure 1). The dashed line indicates the only taxon with a conflicting position among trees (see text).


A multilocus phylogeny of the world Sycoecinae fig wasps (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae).

Cruaud A, Underhill JG, Huguin M, Genson G, Jabbour-Zahab R, Tolley KA, Rasplus JY, van Noort S - PLoS ONE (2013)

Cladograms of relationships among the Sycoecinae obtained from the MAFFT alignment of the combined dataset under three different alignment strategies and two partitioning schemes.The corresponding ML and Bayesian trees are given in Figures 1, S7-S12. Nodes with BP support < 70% have been collapsed and BP supports for main clades are indicated at nodes. Uppercase letters refer to clades discussed in the text (see also Figure 1). The dashed line indicates the only taxon with a conflicting position among trees (see text).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3818460&req=5

pone-0079291-g004: Cladograms of relationships among the Sycoecinae obtained from the MAFFT alignment of the combined dataset under three different alignment strategies and two partitioning schemes.The corresponding ML and Bayesian trees are given in Figures 1, S7-S12. Nodes with BP support < 70% have been collapsed and BP supports for main clades are indicated at nodes. Uppercase letters refer to clades discussed in the text (see also Figure 1). The dashed line indicates the only taxon with a conflicting position among trees (see text).
Bottom Line: We therefore proposed a new classification for the subfamily.Comparisons of our results with fig phylogenies showed that, despite sycoecines being internally ovipositing wasps host-switches are common incidents in their evolutionary history.Finally, by studying the evolutionary properties of the markers we used and profiling their phylogenetic informativeness, we predicted their utility for resolving phylogenetic relationships of Chalcidoidea at various taxonomic levels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: INRA, UMR1062 CBGP Centre de Biologie pour la Gestion des Populations, Montferrier-sur-Lez, France.

ABSTRACT
The Sycoecinae is one of five chalcid subfamilies of fig wasps that are mostly dependent on Ficus inflorescences for reproduction. Here, we analysed two mitochondrial (COI, Cytb) and four nuclear genes (ITS2, EF-1α, RpL27a, mago nashi) from a worldwide sample of 56 sycoecine species. Various alignment and partitioning strategies were used to test the stability of major clades. All topologies estimated using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were similar and well resolved but did not support the existing classification. A high degree of morphological convergence was highlighted and several species appeared best described as species complexes. We therefore proposed a new classification for the subfamily. Our analyses revealed several cases of probable speciation on the same host trees (up to 8 closely related species on one single tree of F. sumatrana), which raises the question of how resource partitioning occurs to avoid competitive exclusion. Comparisons of our results with fig phylogenies showed that, despite sycoecines being internally ovipositing wasps host-switches are common incidents in their evolutionary history. Finally, by studying the evolutionary properties of the markers we used and profiling their phylogenetic informativeness, we predicted their utility for resolving phylogenetic relationships of Chalcidoidea at various taxonomic levels.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus