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A multilocus phylogeny of the world Sycoecinae fig wasps (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae).

Cruaud A, Underhill JG, Huguin M, Genson G, Jabbour-Zahab R, Tolley KA, Rasplus JY, van Noort S - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: We therefore proposed a new classification for the subfamily.Comparisons of our results with fig phylogenies showed that, despite sycoecines being internally ovipositing wasps host-switches are common incidents in their evolutionary history.Finally, by studying the evolutionary properties of the markers we used and profiling their phylogenetic informativeness, we predicted their utility for resolving phylogenetic relationships of Chalcidoidea at various taxonomic levels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: INRA, UMR1062 CBGP Centre de Biologie pour la Gestion des Populations, Montferrier-sur-Lez, France.

ABSTRACT
The Sycoecinae is one of five chalcid subfamilies of fig wasps that are mostly dependent on Ficus inflorescences for reproduction. Here, we analysed two mitochondrial (COI, Cytb) and four nuclear genes (ITS2, EF-1α, RpL27a, mago nashi) from a worldwide sample of 56 sycoecine species. Various alignment and partitioning strategies were used to test the stability of major clades. All topologies estimated using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were similar and well resolved but did not support the existing classification. A high degree of morphological convergence was highlighted and several species appeared best described as species complexes. We therefore proposed a new classification for the subfamily. Our analyses revealed several cases of probable speciation on the same host trees (up to 8 closely related species on one single tree of F. sumatrana), which raises the question of how resource partitioning occurs to avoid competitive exclusion. Comparisons of our results with fig phylogenies showed that, despite sycoecines being internally ovipositing wasps host-switches are common incidents in their evolutionary history. Finally, by studying the evolutionary properties of the markers we used and profiling their phylogenetic informativeness, we predicted their utility for resolving phylogenetic relationships of Chalcidoidea at various taxonomic levels.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Cladograms of relationships among the Sycoecinae obtained from the ClustalW alignment of the combined dataset under three different alignment strategies and two partitioning schemes.The corresponding ML and Bayesian trees are given in Figures 2, S1-S6. Nodes with BP support < 70% have been collapsed and BP supports for main clades are indicated at nodes. Uppercase letters refer to clades discussed in the text (see also Figure 2). The dashed line indicates the only taxon with a conflicting position among trees (see text).
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pone-0079291-g003: Cladograms of relationships among the Sycoecinae obtained from the ClustalW alignment of the combined dataset under three different alignment strategies and two partitioning schemes.The corresponding ML and Bayesian trees are given in Figures 2, S1-S6. Nodes with BP support < 70% have been collapsed and BP supports for main clades are indicated at nodes. Uppercase letters refer to clades discussed in the text (see also Figure 2). The dashed line indicates the only taxon with a conflicting position among trees (see text).

Mentions: All trees had well-resolved backbones and three major clades (A, B, C) were identified (Figures 1-4, S1-S12). As expected the Gblocks-default topologies (Figures 3-4; S3-S4; S9-S10) showed poorer nodal supports at shallower (within C2, C4.5 clades) and intermediate nodes (within clade C). The MAFFT - 6 partitions datasets was used as input for SH and AU tests of alternative topologies (Table S2). Those tests indicated that the Gblocks-default parameters topologies were all significantly different from the others, though our visual comparison of trees revealed that conflicting nodes had poor supports. The only topological conflict between all 24 topologies with a BP > 70 was the position of Diaziella sp. nov. 12 ex Ficus sp. (n° 2989_01) (Figures 3-4, dashed line). Its position was either unresolved (5 trees), as sister to the rest of clade A2 (6 trees, 80 < BP < 92; 0.52 < PP < 1.00) or nested within clade A2 (ClustalW+Gblocks relaxed-6 partitions tree, BP=75, PP=0.89). This uncertainty was probably due to the amount of missing data for this taxon (only 3 markers on 6, Table S1).


A multilocus phylogeny of the world Sycoecinae fig wasps (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae).

Cruaud A, Underhill JG, Huguin M, Genson G, Jabbour-Zahab R, Tolley KA, Rasplus JY, van Noort S - PLoS ONE (2013)

Cladograms of relationships among the Sycoecinae obtained from the ClustalW alignment of the combined dataset under three different alignment strategies and two partitioning schemes.The corresponding ML and Bayesian trees are given in Figures 2, S1-S6. Nodes with BP support < 70% have been collapsed and BP supports for main clades are indicated at nodes. Uppercase letters refer to clades discussed in the text (see also Figure 2). The dashed line indicates the only taxon with a conflicting position among trees (see text).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3818460&req=5

pone-0079291-g003: Cladograms of relationships among the Sycoecinae obtained from the ClustalW alignment of the combined dataset under three different alignment strategies and two partitioning schemes.The corresponding ML and Bayesian trees are given in Figures 2, S1-S6. Nodes with BP support < 70% have been collapsed and BP supports for main clades are indicated at nodes. Uppercase letters refer to clades discussed in the text (see also Figure 2). The dashed line indicates the only taxon with a conflicting position among trees (see text).
Mentions: All trees had well-resolved backbones and three major clades (A, B, C) were identified (Figures 1-4, S1-S12). As expected the Gblocks-default topologies (Figures 3-4; S3-S4; S9-S10) showed poorer nodal supports at shallower (within C2, C4.5 clades) and intermediate nodes (within clade C). The MAFFT - 6 partitions datasets was used as input for SH and AU tests of alternative topologies (Table S2). Those tests indicated that the Gblocks-default parameters topologies were all significantly different from the others, though our visual comparison of trees revealed that conflicting nodes had poor supports. The only topological conflict between all 24 topologies with a BP > 70 was the position of Diaziella sp. nov. 12 ex Ficus sp. (n° 2989_01) (Figures 3-4, dashed line). Its position was either unresolved (5 trees), as sister to the rest of clade A2 (6 trees, 80 < BP < 92; 0.52 < PP < 1.00) or nested within clade A2 (ClustalW+Gblocks relaxed-6 partitions tree, BP=75, PP=0.89). This uncertainty was probably due to the amount of missing data for this taxon (only 3 markers on 6, Table S1).

Bottom Line: We therefore proposed a new classification for the subfamily.Comparisons of our results with fig phylogenies showed that, despite sycoecines being internally ovipositing wasps host-switches are common incidents in their evolutionary history.Finally, by studying the evolutionary properties of the markers we used and profiling their phylogenetic informativeness, we predicted their utility for resolving phylogenetic relationships of Chalcidoidea at various taxonomic levels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: INRA, UMR1062 CBGP Centre de Biologie pour la Gestion des Populations, Montferrier-sur-Lez, France.

ABSTRACT
The Sycoecinae is one of five chalcid subfamilies of fig wasps that are mostly dependent on Ficus inflorescences for reproduction. Here, we analysed two mitochondrial (COI, Cytb) and four nuclear genes (ITS2, EF-1α, RpL27a, mago nashi) from a worldwide sample of 56 sycoecine species. Various alignment and partitioning strategies were used to test the stability of major clades. All topologies estimated using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were similar and well resolved but did not support the existing classification. A high degree of morphological convergence was highlighted and several species appeared best described as species complexes. We therefore proposed a new classification for the subfamily. Our analyses revealed several cases of probable speciation on the same host trees (up to 8 closely related species on one single tree of F. sumatrana), which raises the question of how resource partitioning occurs to avoid competitive exclusion. Comparisons of our results with fig phylogenies showed that, despite sycoecines being internally ovipositing wasps host-switches are common incidents in their evolutionary history. Finally, by studying the evolutionary properties of the markers we used and profiling their phylogenetic informativeness, we predicted their utility for resolving phylogenetic relationships of Chalcidoidea at various taxonomic levels.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus