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Novel B19-like parvovirus in the brain of a harbor seal.

Bodewes R, Rubio García A, Wiersma LC, Getu S, Beukers M, Schapendonk CM, van Run PR, van de Bildt MW, Poen MJ, Osinga N, Sánchez Contreras GJ, Kuiken T, Smits SL, Osterhaus AD - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: In addition, two novel viruses belonging to the family Anelloviridae were detected in the lungs of this animal.Using in situ hybridization, we showed for the first time that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus was present in the Virchow-Robin space and in cerebral parenchyma adjacent to the meninges.These findings showed that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus can be involved in central nervous system infection and inflammation, as has also been suspected but not proven for human parvovirus B19 infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Using random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing, a novel parvovirus was detected in the brain of a young harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with chronic non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis that was rehabilitated at the Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre (SRRC) in the Netherlands. In addition, two novel viruses belonging to the family Anelloviridae were detected in the lungs of this animal. Phylogenetic analysis of the coding sequence of the novel parvovirus, tentatively called Seal parvovirus, indicated that this virus belonged to the genus Erythrovirus, to which human parvovirus B19 also belongs. Although no other seals with similar signs were rehabilitated in SRRC in recent years, a prevalence study of tissues of seals from the same area collected in the period 2008-2012 indicated that the Seal parvovirus has circulated in the harbor seal population at least since 2008. The presence of the Seal parvovirus in the brain was confirmed by real-time PCR and in vitro replication. Using in situ hybridization, we showed for the first time that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus was present in the Virchow-Robin space and in cerebral parenchyma adjacent to the meninges. These findings showed that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus can be involved in central nervous system infection and inflammation, as has also been suspected but not proven for human parvovirus B19 infection.

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Evaluation of the presence of lesions by MRI and histology.A.Transverse T2-weighted MR image of the brain of seal 12-410. No gross abnormalities were detected in the brain parenchyma (the subdural hypointense areas are compatible with air due to post-mortem preparation). B, C, D. Perivascular cuffing with inflammatory cells distending the Virchow-Robin space in the brain parenchyma (B, C) and in the meninges (D). The infiltrates consisted mainly of mononuclear cells. E. Infiltrates of neutrophils and mononuclear cells in the liver parenchyma. F. Megakaryocytes and rubricytes in the spleen associated with extramedullary hematopoiesis. H&E stained slides, original magnification B, C, D: 200x; E, F: 400x.
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pone-0079259-g001: Evaluation of the presence of lesions by MRI and histology.A.Transverse T2-weighted MR image of the brain of seal 12-410. No gross abnormalities were detected in the brain parenchyma (the subdural hypointense areas are compatible with air due to post-mortem preparation). B, C, D. Perivascular cuffing with inflammatory cells distending the Virchow-Robin space in the brain parenchyma (B, C) and in the meninges (D). The infiltrates consisted mainly of mononuclear cells. E. Infiltrates of neutrophils and mononuclear cells in the liver parenchyma. F. Megakaryocytes and rubricytes in the spleen associated with extramedullary hematopoiesis. H&E stained slides, original magnification B, C, D: 200x; E, F: 400x.

Mentions: External examination of seal 12-410 at necropsy revealed numerous ulcerated raised skin lesions varying in size from 5mm to several centimetres in diameter, mainly located at the ventral side of the body and on the right front flipper. Internal examination showed multiple firm dark red foci in the lungs. No further gross abnormalities were observed in the brain or other organs (Figure 1A). On MRI images of the brain, subdural areas with a hypointense signal were found on all sequence images, compatible with gas formation due to decomposition. Upon histological examination, multifocally in the cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, choroid plexus and meninges a mild chronic non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis was observed, characterized by the presence of a mononuclear perivascular infiltrate consisting predominantly of lymphocytes up to 5 cell layers thick (Figure 1B, C, D). Inflammatory cells did not extend into the brain parenchyma surrounding affected blood vessels. The skin had multifocal chronic severe proliferative and necrotizing dermatitis with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies predominantly in acanthocytes, which might have been caused by infection with Seal poxvirus [15]. The lungs showed multifocal to coalescing chronic moderate pyogranulomatous and eosinophilic bronchopneumonia with intralesional nematodes. Such parasitic bronchopneumonia was commonly observed in young harbour seals in this population [16,17]. In the liver, mild hepatitis was observed characterized by the presence of multifocal aggregates of small numbers of neutrophils and mononuclear cells in portal areas and in distended sinusoids, infrequently associated with hepatocyte necrosis (Figure 1E). Multifocally in the spleen and to a lesser extent in the liver, extramedullary haematopoiesis was present, characterized by the presence of precursors of the eyrthroid series and megakaryocytes (Figure 1F). No histological abnormalities were detected in remaining organs.


Novel B19-like parvovirus in the brain of a harbor seal.

Bodewes R, Rubio García A, Wiersma LC, Getu S, Beukers M, Schapendonk CM, van Run PR, van de Bildt MW, Poen MJ, Osinga N, Sánchez Contreras GJ, Kuiken T, Smits SL, Osterhaus AD - PLoS ONE (2013)

Evaluation of the presence of lesions by MRI and histology.A.Transverse T2-weighted MR image of the brain of seal 12-410. No gross abnormalities were detected in the brain parenchyma (the subdural hypointense areas are compatible with air due to post-mortem preparation). B, C, D. Perivascular cuffing with inflammatory cells distending the Virchow-Robin space in the brain parenchyma (B, C) and in the meninges (D). The infiltrates consisted mainly of mononuclear cells. E. Infiltrates of neutrophils and mononuclear cells in the liver parenchyma. F. Megakaryocytes and rubricytes in the spleen associated with extramedullary hematopoiesis. H&E stained slides, original magnification B, C, D: 200x; E, F: 400x.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3818428&req=5

pone-0079259-g001: Evaluation of the presence of lesions by MRI and histology.A.Transverse T2-weighted MR image of the brain of seal 12-410. No gross abnormalities were detected in the brain parenchyma (the subdural hypointense areas are compatible with air due to post-mortem preparation). B, C, D. Perivascular cuffing with inflammatory cells distending the Virchow-Robin space in the brain parenchyma (B, C) and in the meninges (D). The infiltrates consisted mainly of mononuclear cells. E. Infiltrates of neutrophils and mononuclear cells in the liver parenchyma. F. Megakaryocytes and rubricytes in the spleen associated with extramedullary hematopoiesis. H&E stained slides, original magnification B, C, D: 200x; E, F: 400x.
Mentions: External examination of seal 12-410 at necropsy revealed numerous ulcerated raised skin lesions varying in size from 5mm to several centimetres in diameter, mainly located at the ventral side of the body and on the right front flipper. Internal examination showed multiple firm dark red foci in the lungs. No further gross abnormalities were observed in the brain or other organs (Figure 1A). On MRI images of the brain, subdural areas with a hypointense signal were found on all sequence images, compatible with gas formation due to decomposition. Upon histological examination, multifocally in the cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, choroid plexus and meninges a mild chronic non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis was observed, characterized by the presence of a mononuclear perivascular infiltrate consisting predominantly of lymphocytes up to 5 cell layers thick (Figure 1B, C, D). Inflammatory cells did not extend into the brain parenchyma surrounding affected blood vessels. The skin had multifocal chronic severe proliferative and necrotizing dermatitis with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies predominantly in acanthocytes, which might have been caused by infection with Seal poxvirus [15]. The lungs showed multifocal to coalescing chronic moderate pyogranulomatous and eosinophilic bronchopneumonia with intralesional nematodes. Such parasitic bronchopneumonia was commonly observed in young harbour seals in this population [16,17]. In the liver, mild hepatitis was observed characterized by the presence of multifocal aggregates of small numbers of neutrophils and mononuclear cells in portal areas and in distended sinusoids, infrequently associated with hepatocyte necrosis (Figure 1E). Multifocally in the spleen and to a lesser extent in the liver, extramedullary haematopoiesis was present, characterized by the presence of precursors of the eyrthroid series and megakaryocytes (Figure 1F). No histological abnormalities were detected in remaining organs.

Bottom Line: In addition, two novel viruses belonging to the family Anelloviridae were detected in the lungs of this animal.Using in situ hybridization, we showed for the first time that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus was present in the Virchow-Robin space and in cerebral parenchyma adjacent to the meninges.These findings showed that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus can be involved in central nervous system infection and inflammation, as has also been suspected but not proven for human parvovirus B19 infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Using random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing, a novel parvovirus was detected in the brain of a young harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with chronic non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis that was rehabilitated at the Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre (SRRC) in the Netherlands. In addition, two novel viruses belonging to the family Anelloviridae were detected in the lungs of this animal. Phylogenetic analysis of the coding sequence of the novel parvovirus, tentatively called Seal parvovirus, indicated that this virus belonged to the genus Erythrovirus, to which human parvovirus B19 also belongs. Although no other seals with similar signs were rehabilitated in SRRC in recent years, a prevalence study of tissues of seals from the same area collected in the period 2008-2012 indicated that the Seal parvovirus has circulated in the harbor seal population at least since 2008. The presence of the Seal parvovirus in the brain was confirmed by real-time PCR and in vitro replication. Using in situ hybridization, we showed for the first time that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus was present in the Virchow-Robin space and in cerebral parenchyma adjacent to the meninges. These findings showed that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus can be involved in central nervous system infection and inflammation, as has also been suspected but not proven for human parvovirus B19 infection.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus