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Is the United States still dominant in the global pharmaceutical innovation network?

Hu Y, Scherngell T, Man SN, Wang Y - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Our sample is composed of key patents covering all new drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration between 1996 and 2010.The results show that the United States still dominates in the global pharmaceutical innovation network, especially when it comes to essential core inventions.However, the United States shows a slightly decreasing prominence in the networks of either total new drugs or New Molecular Entity (NME) drugs in the time period 2006-2010 as compared to previous time periods, revealed by subtle traces of network centralities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macao, China.

ABSTRACT
The dramatic growth of research and development activities in the pharmaceutical sector in emerging economies raises the question of whether the United States still keeps its dominant role in the global pharmaceutical innovation landscape. This paper focuses on investigating the role of the United States in global pharmaceutical innovation, and differs from previous studies by shifting attention to a network analytic perspective to track the global distribution of pharmaceutical inventions. Our sample is composed of key patents covering all new drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration between 1996 and 2010. The results show that the United States still dominates in the global pharmaceutical innovation network, especially when it comes to essential core inventions. However, the United States shows a slightly decreasing prominence in the networks of either total new drugs or New Molecular Entity (NME) drugs in the time period 2006-2010 as compared to previous time periods, revealed by subtle traces of network centralities.

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Global pharmaceutical innovation network.Note: AR Argentina, AT Austria, AU Australia, BE Belgium, CA Canada, CH Switzerland, CN China, CZ Czech Republic, DE Germany, DK Denmark, ES Spain, FI Finland, FR France, GB United Kingdom, IE Ireland, IL Israel, IN India, IT Italy, JP Japan, NL Netherlands, PL Poland, SE Sweden, US United States. Note: Vertex positions determined using spectral graph analytic methods according to the normalized Laplacian so that countries that are strongly interconnected positioned nearer to each other [27]. Node size corresponds to the weighted degree centrality of a country that is defined as the sum of a countrýs co-intventorships, the strength of the lines correspond to total co-inventorships between two countries.
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pone-0077247-g001: Global pharmaceutical innovation network.Note: AR Argentina, AT Austria, AU Australia, BE Belgium, CA Canada, CH Switzerland, CN China, CZ Czech Republic, DE Germany, DK Denmark, ES Spain, FI Finland, FR France, GB United Kingdom, IE Ireland, IL Israel, IN India, IT Italy, JP Japan, NL Netherlands, PL Poland, SE Sweden, US United States. Note: Vertex positions determined using spectral graph analytic methods according to the normalized Laplacian so that countries that are strongly interconnected positioned nearer to each other [27]. Node size corresponds to the weighted degree centrality of a country that is defined as the sum of a countrýs co-intventorships, the strength of the lines correspond to total co-inventorships between two countries.

Mentions: In a first step, Figure 1 visualizes global networks of all new drugs using G2 for the time periods 1996–2000, 2001–2005 and 2006–2010 by means of information-theoretic techniques. We determine the position for the nodes (countries) using a standard approach from spectral graph analysis according to the normalized Laplacian, so that countries that show a relatively higher intensity of co-inventorships are positioned nearer to each other (for details see the discussion of the normalized graph Laplacian, in e.g. Higham and Kibble 2004) [27]. The node size corresponds to the weighted degree centrality of a country that is defined as the sum of a countrýs number of co-inventorships.


Is the United States still dominant in the global pharmaceutical innovation network?

Hu Y, Scherngell T, Man SN, Wang Y - PLoS ONE (2013)

Global pharmaceutical innovation network.Note: AR Argentina, AT Austria, AU Australia, BE Belgium, CA Canada, CH Switzerland, CN China, CZ Czech Republic, DE Germany, DK Denmark, ES Spain, FI Finland, FR France, GB United Kingdom, IE Ireland, IL Israel, IN India, IT Italy, JP Japan, NL Netherlands, PL Poland, SE Sweden, US United States. Note: Vertex positions determined using spectral graph analytic methods according to the normalized Laplacian so that countries that are strongly interconnected positioned nearer to each other [27]. Node size corresponds to the weighted degree centrality of a country that is defined as the sum of a countrýs co-intventorships, the strength of the lines correspond to total co-inventorships between two countries.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3818371&req=5

pone-0077247-g001: Global pharmaceutical innovation network.Note: AR Argentina, AT Austria, AU Australia, BE Belgium, CA Canada, CH Switzerland, CN China, CZ Czech Republic, DE Germany, DK Denmark, ES Spain, FI Finland, FR France, GB United Kingdom, IE Ireland, IL Israel, IN India, IT Italy, JP Japan, NL Netherlands, PL Poland, SE Sweden, US United States. Note: Vertex positions determined using spectral graph analytic methods according to the normalized Laplacian so that countries that are strongly interconnected positioned nearer to each other [27]. Node size corresponds to the weighted degree centrality of a country that is defined as the sum of a countrýs co-intventorships, the strength of the lines correspond to total co-inventorships between two countries.
Mentions: In a first step, Figure 1 visualizes global networks of all new drugs using G2 for the time periods 1996–2000, 2001–2005 and 2006–2010 by means of information-theoretic techniques. We determine the position for the nodes (countries) using a standard approach from spectral graph analysis according to the normalized Laplacian, so that countries that show a relatively higher intensity of co-inventorships are positioned nearer to each other (for details see the discussion of the normalized graph Laplacian, in e.g. Higham and Kibble 2004) [27]. The node size corresponds to the weighted degree centrality of a country that is defined as the sum of a countrýs number of co-inventorships.

Bottom Line: Our sample is composed of key patents covering all new drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration between 1996 and 2010.The results show that the United States still dominates in the global pharmaceutical innovation network, especially when it comes to essential core inventions.However, the United States shows a slightly decreasing prominence in the networks of either total new drugs or New Molecular Entity (NME) drugs in the time period 2006-2010 as compared to previous time periods, revealed by subtle traces of network centralities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macao, China.

ABSTRACT
The dramatic growth of research and development activities in the pharmaceutical sector in emerging economies raises the question of whether the United States still keeps its dominant role in the global pharmaceutical innovation landscape. This paper focuses on investigating the role of the United States in global pharmaceutical innovation, and differs from previous studies by shifting attention to a network analytic perspective to track the global distribution of pharmaceutical inventions. Our sample is composed of key patents covering all new drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration between 1996 and 2010. The results show that the United States still dominates in the global pharmaceutical innovation network, especially when it comes to essential core inventions. However, the United States shows a slightly decreasing prominence in the networks of either total new drugs or New Molecular Entity (NME) drugs in the time period 2006-2010 as compared to previous time periods, revealed by subtle traces of network centralities.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus