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Tissue-specific and cation/anion-specific DNA methylation variations occurred in C. virgata in response to salinity stress.

Gao X, Cao D, Liu J, Wang X, Geng S, Liu B, Shi D - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: The results showed that the effects on DNA methylation variations of single salts were ranked as follows: Na2CO3> NaHCO3> Na2SO4> NaCl, and their mixed salts exerted tissue-specific effects on C. virgata seedlings.These findings suggested that mixed salts were not the simple combination of single salts.Furthermore, not only single salts but also mixed salts showed tissue-specific and cations/anions-specific DNA methylation variations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institutes of Genetics and Cytology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, China.

ABSTRACT
Salinity is a widespread environmental problem limiting productivity and growth of plants. Halophytes which can adapt and resist certain salt stress have various mechanisms to defend the higher salinity and alkalinity, and epigenetic mechanisms especially DNA methylation may play important roles in plant adaptability and plasticity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the different influences of various single salts (NaCl, Na2SO4, NaHCO3, Na2CO3) and their mixed salts on halophyte Chloris. virgata from the DNA methylation prospective, and discover the underlying relationships between specific DNA methylation variations and specific cations/anions through the methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analysis. The results showed that the effects on DNA methylation variations of single salts were ranked as follows: Na2CO3> NaHCO3> Na2SO4> NaCl, and their mixed salts exerted tissue-specific effects on C. virgata seedlings. Eight types of DNA methylation variations were detected and defined in C. virgata according to the specific cations/anions existed in stressful solutions; in addition, mix-specific and higher pH-specific bands were the main type in leaves and roots independently. These findings suggested that mixed salts were not the simple combination of single salts. Furthermore, not only single salts but also mixed salts showed tissue-specific and cations/anions-specific DNA methylation variations.

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Effects of different salt stresses on variations in C.virgata leaves and roots.B: NaCl, C: Na2SO4, D: NaHCO3, E: Na2CO3, F: Mix. Data represent means ±S.E. of four replicates. Different lower-case letters represent significant difference among treatments at the 5% level, according to least significant difference (LSD) test.
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pone-0078426-g005: Effects of different salt stresses on variations in C.virgata leaves and roots.B: NaCl, C: Na2SO4, D: NaHCO3, E: Na2CO3, F: Mix. Data represent means ±S.E. of four replicates. Different lower-case letters represent significant difference among treatments at the 5% level, according to least significant difference (LSD) test.

Mentions: Alkali salts (NaHCO3 and Na2CO3), with a higherpH, had more destructive effects than neutral salts (NaCl and Na2SO4) with a neutral pH (Figure 3, 4), and their effects were ranked as follows: Na2CO3> NaHCO3> Na2SO4> NaCl (Figure 5). The toxicity of neutral salts to plants mainly comes from ion damage and osmotic stress, while higher pH is another lethal factor limiting plant growth and development in alkali salts [26]. However, when the four kinds of single salt were mixed together, mixed salts (F set) enhanced the DNA methylation variation in leaves but weakened it in roots (Figure 5). These results suggested that the mixed salts were not the simple combination of single salt but had more complicated effects, as further supported by the Mix-specific hyper or hypo-methylation bands identified in F set (Figure 6–9). The interaction among Na+, Cl−, SO42−, HCO3− and CO32− in controlling methylation might be one of mechanisms that certain plants could be alive in higher concentration mixed salts but sensitive to lower single salt.


Tissue-specific and cation/anion-specific DNA methylation variations occurred in C. virgata in response to salinity stress.

Gao X, Cao D, Liu J, Wang X, Geng S, Liu B, Shi D - PLoS ONE (2013)

Effects of different salt stresses on variations in C.virgata leaves and roots.B: NaCl, C: Na2SO4, D: NaHCO3, E: Na2CO3, F: Mix. Data represent means ±S.E. of four replicates. Different lower-case letters represent significant difference among treatments at the 5% level, according to least significant difference (LSD) test.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3818329&req=5

pone-0078426-g005: Effects of different salt stresses on variations in C.virgata leaves and roots.B: NaCl, C: Na2SO4, D: NaHCO3, E: Na2CO3, F: Mix. Data represent means ±S.E. of four replicates. Different lower-case letters represent significant difference among treatments at the 5% level, according to least significant difference (LSD) test.
Mentions: Alkali salts (NaHCO3 and Na2CO3), with a higherpH, had more destructive effects than neutral salts (NaCl and Na2SO4) with a neutral pH (Figure 3, 4), and their effects were ranked as follows: Na2CO3> NaHCO3> Na2SO4> NaCl (Figure 5). The toxicity of neutral salts to plants mainly comes from ion damage and osmotic stress, while higher pH is another lethal factor limiting plant growth and development in alkali salts [26]. However, when the four kinds of single salt were mixed together, mixed salts (F set) enhanced the DNA methylation variation in leaves but weakened it in roots (Figure 5). These results suggested that the mixed salts were not the simple combination of single salt but had more complicated effects, as further supported by the Mix-specific hyper or hypo-methylation bands identified in F set (Figure 6–9). The interaction among Na+, Cl−, SO42−, HCO3− and CO32− in controlling methylation might be one of mechanisms that certain plants could be alive in higher concentration mixed salts but sensitive to lower single salt.

Bottom Line: The results showed that the effects on DNA methylation variations of single salts were ranked as follows: Na2CO3> NaHCO3> Na2SO4> NaCl, and their mixed salts exerted tissue-specific effects on C. virgata seedlings.These findings suggested that mixed salts were not the simple combination of single salts.Furthermore, not only single salts but also mixed salts showed tissue-specific and cations/anions-specific DNA methylation variations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institutes of Genetics and Cytology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, China.

ABSTRACT
Salinity is a widespread environmental problem limiting productivity and growth of plants. Halophytes which can adapt and resist certain salt stress have various mechanisms to defend the higher salinity and alkalinity, and epigenetic mechanisms especially DNA methylation may play important roles in plant adaptability and plasticity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the different influences of various single salts (NaCl, Na2SO4, NaHCO3, Na2CO3) and their mixed salts on halophyte Chloris. virgata from the DNA methylation prospective, and discover the underlying relationships between specific DNA methylation variations and specific cations/anions through the methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analysis. The results showed that the effects on DNA methylation variations of single salts were ranked as follows: Na2CO3> NaHCO3> Na2SO4> NaCl, and their mixed salts exerted tissue-specific effects on C. virgata seedlings. Eight types of DNA methylation variations were detected and defined in C. virgata according to the specific cations/anions existed in stressful solutions; in addition, mix-specific and higher pH-specific bands were the main type in leaves and roots independently. These findings suggested that mixed salts were not the simple combination of single salts. Furthermore, not only single salts but also mixed salts showed tissue-specific and cations/anions-specific DNA methylation variations.

Show MeSH