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Tissue-specific and cation/anion-specific DNA methylation variations occurred in C. virgata in response to salinity stress.

Gao X, Cao D, Liu J, Wang X, Geng S, Liu B, Shi D - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: The results showed that the effects on DNA methylation variations of single salts were ranked as follows: Na2CO3> NaHCO3> Na2SO4> NaCl, and their mixed salts exerted tissue-specific effects on C. virgata seedlings.These findings suggested that mixed salts were not the simple combination of single salts.Furthermore, not only single salts but also mixed salts showed tissue-specific and cations/anions-specific DNA methylation variations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institutes of Genetics and Cytology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, China.

ABSTRACT
Salinity is a widespread environmental problem limiting productivity and growth of plants. Halophytes which can adapt and resist certain salt stress have various mechanisms to defend the higher salinity and alkalinity, and epigenetic mechanisms especially DNA methylation may play important roles in plant adaptability and plasticity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the different influences of various single salts (NaCl, Na2SO4, NaHCO3, Na2CO3) and their mixed salts on halophyte Chloris. virgata from the DNA methylation prospective, and discover the underlying relationships between specific DNA methylation variations and specific cations/anions through the methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analysis. The results showed that the effects on DNA methylation variations of single salts were ranked as follows: Na2CO3> NaHCO3> Na2SO4> NaCl, and their mixed salts exerted tissue-specific effects on C. virgata seedlings. Eight types of DNA methylation variations were detected and defined in C. virgata according to the specific cations/anions existed in stressful solutions; in addition, mix-specific and higher pH-specific bands were the main type in leaves and roots independently. These findings suggested that mixed salts were not the simple combination of single salts. Furthermore, not only single salts but also mixed salts showed tissue-specific and cations/anions-specific DNA methylation variations.

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Effects of different salt stresses on hypermethylation (a, c) and hypomethylation (b, d) in C.virgata.B: NaCl, C: Na2SO4, D: NaHCO3, E: Na2CO3, F: Mix.
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pone-0078426-g004: Effects of different salt stresses on hypermethylation (a, c) and hypomethylation (b, d) in C.virgata.B: NaCl, C: Na2SO4, D: NaHCO3, E: Na2CO3, F: Mix.

Mentions: In C. virgata leaves, the total variation frequencies that occurred in B-F sets were 2.04%, 3.22%, 3.99%, 4.22%, 7.67% respectively (Figure 2d), while in roots were 4.69%, 7.53%, 14.96%, 17.08%, 16.55% respectively (Figure 3d). Comparing with E set, the mixed salt treatment (F set) still increased the variation frequency in leaves (p<0.05) but decreased in roots. The results also indicated that the variation frequencies were higher in alkali salt treatments (D and E sets) than neutral salt treatments (B and C sets) in both leaves (Figure 4a, b) and roots (Figure 4c, d). Furthermore, based on their effects on DNA methylation variation frequencies, the salts were ranked as follows: Na2CO3>NaHCO3>Na2SO4>NaCl. In addition, mixed salts caused tissue-specific DNA methylation variations; it strengthened the effect of each single salt in leaves but weaken the effect in roots. Besides that, DNA methylation variations were influenced much more seriously in roots than in leaves under each of stress treatments.


Tissue-specific and cation/anion-specific DNA methylation variations occurred in C. virgata in response to salinity stress.

Gao X, Cao D, Liu J, Wang X, Geng S, Liu B, Shi D - PLoS ONE (2013)

Effects of different salt stresses on hypermethylation (a, c) and hypomethylation (b, d) in C.virgata.B: NaCl, C: Na2SO4, D: NaHCO3, E: Na2CO3, F: Mix.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3818329&req=5

pone-0078426-g004: Effects of different salt stresses on hypermethylation (a, c) and hypomethylation (b, d) in C.virgata.B: NaCl, C: Na2SO4, D: NaHCO3, E: Na2CO3, F: Mix.
Mentions: In C. virgata leaves, the total variation frequencies that occurred in B-F sets were 2.04%, 3.22%, 3.99%, 4.22%, 7.67% respectively (Figure 2d), while in roots were 4.69%, 7.53%, 14.96%, 17.08%, 16.55% respectively (Figure 3d). Comparing with E set, the mixed salt treatment (F set) still increased the variation frequency in leaves (p<0.05) but decreased in roots. The results also indicated that the variation frequencies were higher in alkali salt treatments (D and E sets) than neutral salt treatments (B and C sets) in both leaves (Figure 4a, b) and roots (Figure 4c, d). Furthermore, based on their effects on DNA methylation variation frequencies, the salts were ranked as follows: Na2CO3>NaHCO3>Na2SO4>NaCl. In addition, mixed salts caused tissue-specific DNA methylation variations; it strengthened the effect of each single salt in leaves but weaken the effect in roots. Besides that, DNA methylation variations were influenced much more seriously in roots than in leaves under each of stress treatments.

Bottom Line: The results showed that the effects on DNA methylation variations of single salts were ranked as follows: Na2CO3> NaHCO3> Na2SO4> NaCl, and their mixed salts exerted tissue-specific effects on C. virgata seedlings.These findings suggested that mixed salts were not the simple combination of single salts.Furthermore, not only single salts but also mixed salts showed tissue-specific and cations/anions-specific DNA methylation variations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institutes of Genetics and Cytology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, China.

ABSTRACT
Salinity is a widespread environmental problem limiting productivity and growth of plants. Halophytes which can adapt and resist certain salt stress have various mechanisms to defend the higher salinity and alkalinity, and epigenetic mechanisms especially DNA methylation may play important roles in plant adaptability and plasticity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the different influences of various single salts (NaCl, Na2SO4, NaHCO3, Na2CO3) and their mixed salts on halophyte Chloris. virgata from the DNA methylation prospective, and discover the underlying relationships between specific DNA methylation variations and specific cations/anions through the methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analysis. The results showed that the effects on DNA methylation variations of single salts were ranked as follows: Na2CO3> NaHCO3> Na2SO4> NaCl, and their mixed salts exerted tissue-specific effects on C. virgata seedlings. Eight types of DNA methylation variations were detected and defined in C. virgata according to the specific cations/anions existed in stressful solutions; in addition, mix-specific and higher pH-specific bands were the main type in leaves and roots independently. These findings suggested that mixed salts were not the simple combination of single salts. Furthermore, not only single salts but also mixed salts showed tissue-specific and cations/anions-specific DNA methylation variations.

Show MeSH