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Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011.

Kim EC, Morgan IG, Kakizaki H, Kang S, Jee D - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: The prevalence of myopia sharply decreased from 78.9% (CI, 77.4-80.4) in 20-29 year olds to 16.1% (CI, 14.9-17.3) in 60-69 year olds.In multivariable logistic regression analyses restricted to subjects aged 40+ years, myopia was associated with younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.93-0.94, p < 0.001), education level of university or higher (OR, 2.31; CI, 1.97-2.71, p < 0.001), and shorter sunlight exposure time (OR, 0.84; CI, 0.76-0.93, p = 0.002).These results show that the younger generations in Korea are much more myopic than previous generations, and that important factors associated with this increase are increased education levels and reduced sunlight exposures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Buchon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To examine the prevalence and risk factors of refractive errors in a representative Korean population aged 20 years old or older.

Methods: A total of 23,392 people aged 20+ years were selected for the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey 2008-2011, using stratified, multistage, clustered sampling. Refractive error was measured by autorefraction without cycloplegia, and interviews were performed regarding associated risk factors including gender, age, height, education level, parent's education level, economic status, light exposure time, and current smoking history.

Results: Of 23,392 participants, refractive errors were examined in 22,562 persons, including 21,356 subjects with phakic eyes. The overall prevalences of myopia (< -0.5 D), high myopia (< -6.0 D), and hyperopia (> 0.5 D) were 48.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.4-48.8), 4.0% (CI, 3.7-4.3), and 24.2% (CI, 23.6-24.8), respectively. The prevalence of myopia sharply decreased from 78.9% (CI, 77.4-80.4) in 20-29 year olds to 16.1% (CI, 14.9-17.3) in 60-69 year olds. In multivariable logistic regression analyses restricted to subjects aged 40+ years, myopia was associated with younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.93-0.94, p < 0.001), education level of university or higher (OR, 2.31; CI, 1.97-2.71, p < 0.001), and shorter sunlight exposure time (OR, 0.84; CI, 0.76-0.93, p = 0.002).

Conclusions: This study provides the first representative population-based data on refractive error for Korean adults. The prevalence of myopia in Korean adults in 40+ years (34.7%) was comparable to that in other Asian countries. These results show that the younger generations in Korea are much more myopic than previous generations, and that important factors associated with this increase are increased education levels and reduced sunlight exposures.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of prevalence of myopia in Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) with U.S NHANES (Vitale et. al., Prevalence of refractive errors in United States, Archives Ophthalmology 2008).
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pone-0080361-g003: Comparison of prevalence of myopia in Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) with U.S NHANES (Vitale et. al., Prevalence of refractive errors in United States, Archives Ophthalmology 2008).

Mentions: Age-specific prevalence data are in many ways more meaningful. The prevalence of myopia in 20-39 year-old Korean (75.1%) is higher than in age-matched black (49.0%) and white people (51.3%) in the U.S. NHANES, which used same examination methods, and a similar sampling frame (Figure 3). The prevalence of myopia in 40-49 year-old Koreans (60.7%) is much higher than in similar age groups in other Asian countries. Our data is much higher than Chinese in rural areas (22.0%) [16], Malays in Singapore (31.0) [30], Indians in Singapore (33.3%) [31], Chinese in Singapore (48.9%)[29] and in Indians in India (19.2%) [32]. However, that of Koreans 60 years or older (16.1-18.2%) is comparable or lower than that in other Asian countries (14.4 - 40.0% in Chinese [16], 16.4 - 36.8% in Singapore[29-31], and 54.1 - 56.0% in India [32]). After compared with the other Asian studies without cataract, the prevalence of myopia in those without cataract in 60-69 years (15.4%) and 70+ years (10.7%) is similar to that of Indians and Malays in Singapore [30,31]. Cataract has been found to cause myopic shifts in older adults, which reflects an increased power of the lens rather than increased axial length [30-32]. The difference in the prevalence of myopia between 40-49 and 60-69 years aged groups in Korea (44.0%) was much higher than in Chinese (7.6%) [16], in Singapore (13.0 - 20.4%) [29-31], and Western countries (11.2 - 28.1%)[18,35,36]. This finding suggests that the prevalence of myopia in Korean adults increased more sharply than in other countries.


Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011.

Kim EC, Morgan IG, Kakizaki H, Kang S, Jee D - PLoS ONE (2013)

Comparison of prevalence of myopia in Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) with U.S NHANES (Vitale et. al., Prevalence of refractive errors in United States, Archives Ophthalmology 2008).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3818255&req=5

pone-0080361-g003: Comparison of prevalence of myopia in Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) with U.S NHANES (Vitale et. al., Prevalence of refractive errors in United States, Archives Ophthalmology 2008).
Mentions: Age-specific prevalence data are in many ways more meaningful. The prevalence of myopia in 20-39 year-old Korean (75.1%) is higher than in age-matched black (49.0%) and white people (51.3%) in the U.S. NHANES, which used same examination methods, and a similar sampling frame (Figure 3). The prevalence of myopia in 40-49 year-old Koreans (60.7%) is much higher than in similar age groups in other Asian countries. Our data is much higher than Chinese in rural areas (22.0%) [16], Malays in Singapore (31.0) [30], Indians in Singapore (33.3%) [31], Chinese in Singapore (48.9%)[29] and in Indians in India (19.2%) [32]. However, that of Koreans 60 years or older (16.1-18.2%) is comparable or lower than that in other Asian countries (14.4 - 40.0% in Chinese [16], 16.4 - 36.8% in Singapore[29-31], and 54.1 - 56.0% in India [32]). After compared with the other Asian studies without cataract, the prevalence of myopia in those without cataract in 60-69 years (15.4%) and 70+ years (10.7%) is similar to that of Indians and Malays in Singapore [30,31]. Cataract has been found to cause myopic shifts in older adults, which reflects an increased power of the lens rather than increased axial length [30-32]. The difference in the prevalence of myopia between 40-49 and 60-69 years aged groups in Korea (44.0%) was much higher than in Chinese (7.6%) [16], in Singapore (13.0 - 20.4%) [29-31], and Western countries (11.2 - 28.1%)[18,35,36]. This finding suggests that the prevalence of myopia in Korean adults increased more sharply than in other countries.

Bottom Line: The prevalence of myopia sharply decreased from 78.9% (CI, 77.4-80.4) in 20-29 year olds to 16.1% (CI, 14.9-17.3) in 60-69 year olds.In multivariable logistic regression analyses restricted to subjects aged 40+ years, myopia was associated with younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.93-0.94, p < 0.001), education level of university or higher (OR, 2.31; CI, 1.97-2.71, p < 0.001), and shorter sunlight exposure time (OR, 0.84; CI, 0.76-0.93, p = 0.002).These results show that the younger generations in Korea are much more myopic than previous generations, and that important factors associated with this increase are increased education levels and reduced sunlight exposures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Buchon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To examine the prevalence and risk factors of refractive errors in a representative Korean population aged 20 years old or older.

Methods: A total of 23,392 people aged 20+ years were selected for the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey 2008-2011, using stratified, multistage, clustered sampling. Refractive error was measured by autorefraction without cycloplegia, and interviews were performed regarding associated risk factors including gender, age, height, education level, parent's education level, economic status, light exposure time, and current smoking history.

Results: Of 23,392 participants, refractive errors were examined in 22,562 persons, including 21,356 subjects with phakic eyes. The overall prevalences of myopia (< -0.5 D), high myopia (< -6.0 D), and hyperopia (> 0.5 D) were 48.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.4-48.8), 4.0% (CI, 3.7-4.3), and 24.2% (CI, 23.6-24.8), respectively. The prevalence of myopia sharply decreased from 78.9% (CI, 77.4-80.4) in 20-29 year olds to 16.1% (CI, 14.9-17.3) in 60-69 year olds. In multivariable logistic regression analyses restricted to subjects aged 40+ years, myopia was associated with younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.93-0.94, p < 0.001), education level of university or higher (OR, 2.31; CI, 1.97-2.71, p < 0.001), and shorter sunlight exposure time (OR, 0.84; CI, 0.76-0.93, p = 0.002).

Conclusions: This study provides the first representative population-based data on refractive error for Korean adults. The prevalence of myopia in Korean adults in 40+ years (34.7%) was comparable to that in other Asian countries. These results show that the younger generations in Korea are much more myopic than previous generations, and that important factors associated with this increase are increased education levels and reduced sunlight exposures.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus