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Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011.

Kim EC, Morgan IG, Kakizaki H, Kang S, Jee D - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: The prevalence of myopia sharply decreased from 78.9% (CI, 77.4-80.4) in 20-29 year olds to 16.1% (CI, 14.9-17.3) in 60-69 year olds.In multivariable logistic regression analyses restricted to subjects aged 40+ years, myopia was associated with younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.93-0.94, p < 0.001), education level of university or higher (OR, 2.31; CI, 1.97-2.71, p < 0.001), and shorter sunlight exposure time (OR, 0.84; CI, 0.76-0.93, p = 0.002).These results show that the younger generations in Korea are much more myopic than previous generations, and that important factors associated with this increase are increased education levels and reduced sunlight exposures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Buchon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To examine the prevalence and risk factors of refractive errors in a representative Korean population aged 20 years old or older.

Methods: A total of 23,392 people aged 20+ years were selected for the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey 2008-2011, using stratified, multistage, clustered sampling. Refractive error was measured by autorefraction without cycloplegia, and interviews were performed regarding associated risk factors including gender, age, height, education level, parent's education level, economic status, light exposure time, and current smoking history.

Results: Of 23,392 participants, refractive errors were examined in 22,562 persons, including 21,356 subjects with phakic eyes. The overall prevalences of myopia (< -0.5 D), high myopia (< -6.0 D), and hyperopia (> 0.5 D) were 48.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.4-48.8), 4.0% (CI, 3.7-4.3), and 24.2% (CI, 23.6-24.8), respectively. The prevalence of myopia sharply decreased from 78.9% (CI, 77.4-80.4) in 20-29 year olds to 16.1% (CI, 14.9-17.3) in 60-69 year olds. In multivariable logistic regression analyses restricted to subjects aged 40+ years, myopia was associated with younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.93-0.94, p < 0.001), education level of university or higher (OR, 2.31; CI, 1.97-2.71, p < 0.001), and shorter sunlight exposure time (OR, 0.84; CI, 0.76-0.93, p = 0.002).

Conclusions: This study provides the first representative population-based data on refractive error for Korean adults. The prevalence of myopia in Korean adults in 40+ years (34.7%) was comparable to that in other Asian countries. These results show that the younger generations in Korea are much more myopic than previous generations, and that important factors associated with this increase are increased education levels and reduced sunlight exposures.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Distribution of refractive error in Korean adults in Korean representative population.Distribution was presented according to the age groups, and compared with those of previous studies for Korean 19 years old population in Seoul and Jeju.
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pone-0080361-g001: Distribution of refractive error in Korean adults in Korean representative population.Distribution was presented according to the age groups, and compared with those of previous studies for Korean 19 years old population in Seoul and Jeju.

Mentions: Distribution of refractive error in each age group is shown in Figure 1. Kurtosis and skewness for distribution of refractive error in each age groups was presented in Table 2. For comparative purposes, the distributions of mean SER in 19 year-old males in Seoul and the rural area of Jeju Province are also shown. In the older age groups, kurtosis was high and skewness was low, with a hyperopic peak of refraction, which is the classical picture of the distribution of refractive error [28]. In the younger people, there is a much less kurtosis and much greater spread in the distribution, with a pronounced skew towards myopia. This is seen in an exaggerated form in the data from Seoul. Decreased kurtosis and greater skew progressively appears in the younger age-groups.


Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011.

Kim EC, Morgan IG, Kakizaki H, Kang S, Jee D - PLoS ONE (2013)

Distribution of refractive error in Korean adults in Korean representative population.Distribution was presented according to the age groups, and compared with those of previous studies for Korean 19 years old population in Seoul and Jeju.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3818255&req=5

pone-0080361-g001: Distribution of refractive error in Korean adults in Korean representative population.Distribution was presented according to the age groups, and compared with those of previous studies for Korean 19 years old population in Seoul and Jeju.
Mentions: Distribution of refractive error in each age group is shown in Figure 1. Kurtosis and skewness for distribution of refractive error in each age groups was presented in Table 2. For comparative purposes, the distributions of mean SER in 19 year-old males in Seoul and the rural area of Jeju Province are also shown. In the older age groups, kurtosis was high and skewness was low, with a hyperopic peak of refraction, which is the classical picture of the distribution of refractive error [28]. In the younger people, there is a much less kurtosis and much greater spread in the distribution, with a pronounced skew towards myopia. This is seen in an exaggerated form in the data from Seoul. Decreased kurtosis and greater skew progressively appears in the younger age-groups.

Bottom Line: The prevalence of myopia sharply decreased from 78.9% (CI, 77.4-80.4) in 20-29 year olds to 16.1% (CI, 14.9-17.3) in 60-69 year olds.In multivariable logistic regression analyses restricted to subjects aged 40+ years, myopia was associated with younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.93-0.94, p < 0.001), education level of university or higher (OR, 2.31; CI, 1.97-2.71, p < 0.001), and shorter sunlight exposure time (OR, 0.84; CI, 0.76-0.93, p = 0.002).These results show that the younger generations in Korea are much more myopic than previous generations, and that important factors associated with this increase are increased education levels and reduced sunlight exposures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Buchon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To examine the prevalence and risk factors of refractive errors in a representative Korean population aged 20 years old or older.

Methods: A total of 23,392 people aged 20+ years were selected for the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey 2008-2011, using stratified, multistage, clustered sampling. Refractive error was measured by autorefraction without cycloplegia, and interviews were performed regarding associated risk factors including gender, age, height, education level, parent's education level, economic status, light exposure time, and current smoking history.

Results: Of 23,392 participants, refractive errors were examined in 22,562 persons, including 21,356 subjects with phakic eyes. The overall prevalences of myopia (< -0.5 D), high myopia (< -6.0 D), and hyperopia (> 0.5 D) were 48.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.4-48.8), 4.0% (CI, 3.7-4.3), and 24.2% (CI, 23.6-24.8), respectively. The prevalence of myopia sharply decreased from 78.9% (CI, 77.4-80.4) in 20-29 year olds to 16.1% (CI, 14.9-17.3) in 60-69 year olds. In multivariable logistic regression analyses restricted to subjects aged 40+ years, myopia was associated with younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.93-0.94, p < 0.001), education level of university or higher (OR, 2.31; CI, 1.97-2.71, p < 0.001), and shorter sunlight exposure time (OR, 0.84; CI, 0.76-0.93, p = 0.002).

Conclusions: This study provides the first representative population-based data on refractive error for Korean adults. The prevalence of myopia in Korean adults in 40+ years (34.7%) was comparable to that in other Asian countries. These results show that the younger generations in Korea are much more myopic than previous generations, and that important factors associated with this increase are increased education levels and reduced sunlight exposures.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus