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Cognitive performance of Göttingen minipigs is affected by diet in a spatial hole-board discrimination test.

Haagensen AM, Klein AB, Ettrup A, Matthews LR, Sørensen DB - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: We sought to contrast the effect of a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet and a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test.The different diets did not impact levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain tissue and neither did they affect circulatory inflammation measured by concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin in serum.These findings suggest that high dietary intake of both fat and sugar may impair spatial cognition which could be relevant for mental functioning in humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Section of Experimental Animal Models, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

ABSTRACT
Consumption of a high energy diet, containing high amounts of saturated fat and refined sugar has been associated with impairment of cognitive function in rodents and humans. We sought to contrast the effect of a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet and a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test. We found that both working memory and reference memory were impaired by both diets relative to a standard minipig diet high in carbohydrate, low in fat and sugar. The different diets did not impact levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain tissue and neither did they affect circulatory inflammation measured by concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin in serum. However, higher levels of triglycerides were observed for minipigs fed the diets with high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate and low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose compared to minipigs fed a standard minipig diet. This might explain the observed impairments in spatial cognition. These findings suggest that high dietary intake of both fat and sugar may impair spatial cognition which could be relevant for mental functioning in humans.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

a-c. Performance of minipigs in the spatial hole-board discrimination test. Data are presented as trial blocks of means of four trials ±SD for the acquisition phase (A), the memory phase (M) and the reversal learning phase (R) where a = working memory scores, b = reference memory scores and c = trial duration (time, sec.). Low fat, high carbohydrate diet (LFHC); high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet (HFLC); low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet (LFHS).
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pone-0079429-g001: a-c. Performance of minipigs in the spatial hole-board discrimination test. Data are presented as trial blocks of means of four trials ±SD for the acquisition phase (A), the memory phase (M) and the reversal learning phase (R) where a = working memory scores, b = reference memory scores and c = trial duration (time, sec.). Low fat, high carbohydrate diet (LFHC); high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet (HFLC); low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet (LFHS).

Mentions: The minipigs learned to perform in the spatial hole-board discrimination test consisting of three phases; acquisition, memory and reversal learning wherein scores of working memory, reference memory and trial duration was calculated. Both trial block and diet had an effect on performance of the minipigs (Table 2, Figure 1a-c): Minipigs significantly improved working memory scores (LFHC: F4,28 = 2.867, p < 0.05; LFHS: F4,28 = 6.970, p < 0.001; HFLC: F4,28 = 3.647, p < 0.05) and reference memory scores (LFHC: F4,28 = 7.969, p < 0.001; LFHS: F4,28 = 6.684, p < 0.001; HFLC: F4,28 = 5.924, p < 0.01) over time during the A phase with no effect of diet. Trial duration decreased during the A phase (LFHC: F4,28 = 4.182, p < 0.01; LFHS: F4,28 = 10.77, p < 0.0001; HFLC: F4,28 = 9.533, p < 0.0001) and an effect of diet was found (F2,168 = 4.763, p < 0.05). Further analysis showed that this diet effect was only present during the first trial block A(1-4) where LFHS minipigs took a significantly longer time to complete a trial (p < 0.001) compared to HFLC minipigs. An effect of trial block was found for the M phase for working memory scores (LFHC: F6,42 = 2.908, p < 0.05; LFHS: F6,42 = 3.387, p < 0.01; HFLC: F6,42 = 3.443, p < 0.01), reference memory scores (LFHC: F6,42 = 11.000, p < 0.001; LFHS: F6,42 = 5.505, p < 0.001; HFLC: F6,42 = 8.359, p < 0.001) and trial duration (LFHC: F6,42 = 4.634, p < 0.01; LFHS: F6,42 = 10.830, p < 0.001; HFLC: F6,42 = 11.260, p < 0.001). Diet had no effect on working memory performance or trial duration during the M phase. In contrast, an effect of diet was found on reference memory scores (F2,168 = 7.710, p < 0.01) where LFHC minipigs performed significantly better (p < 0.001) than LFHS and HFLC minipigs during the first trial block; M (1-4). This difference was found for the last three trials of the block (Figure 2). Some effect of trial block was found in the R phase for working memory scores (LFHC: NS; LFHS: NS; HFLC: F8,56 = 4.209, p < 0.001), reference memory scores (LFHC: F8,56 = 9.768, p < 0.001; LFHS: F8,56 = 7.179, p < 0.001; HFLC: F8,56 = 10.340, p < 0.001) and trial duration (LFHC: F8,56 = 4.646, p < 0.001; LFHS: F8,56 = 6.730, p < 0.001; HFLC: F8,56 = 9.759, p < 0.001). No effect of diet was found for reference memory performance or trial duration in the R phase. In contrast, working memory scores were different between diets (F2,168 = 4.091, p < 0.05) with LFHC minipigs performing significantly better (p < 0.01) than HFLC and LFHS minipigs in the first trial block; R(1-4) and second trial block; R(5-8), respectively. We found no fixed search pattern for any of the minipigs when looking at the order in which the bowls were visited.


Cognitive performance of Göttingen minipigs is affected by diet in a spatial hole-board discrimination test.

Haagensen AM, Klein AB, Ettrup A, Matthews LR, Sørensen DB - PLoS ONE (2013)

a-c. Performance of minipigs in the spatial hole-board discrimination test. Data are presented as trial blocks of means of four trials ±SD for the acquisition phase (A), the memory phase (M) and the reversal learning phase (R) where a = working memory scores, b = reference memory scores and c = trial duration (time, sec.). Low fat, high carbohydrate diet (LFHC); high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet (HFLC); low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet (LFHS).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3818226&req=5

pone-0079429-g001: a-c. Performance of minipigs in the spatial hole-board discrimination test. Data are presented as trial blocks of means of four trials ±SD for the acquisition phase (A), the memory phase (M) and the reversal learning phase (R) where a = working memory scores, b = reference memory scores and c = trial duration (time, sec.). Low fat, high carbohydrate diet (LFHC); high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet (HFLC); low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet (LFHS).
Mentions: The minipigs learned to perform in the spatial hole-board discrimination test consisting of three phases; acquisition, memory and reversal learning wherein scores of working memory, reference memory and trial duration was calculated. Both trial block and diet had an effect on performance of the minipigs (Table 2, Figure 1a-c): Minipigs significantly improved working memory scores (LFHC: F4,28 = 2.867, p < 0.05; LFHS: F4,28 = 6.970, p < 0.001; HFLC: F4,28 = 3.647, p < 0.05) and reference memory scores (LFHC: F4,28 = 7.969, p < 0.001; LFHS: F4,28 = 6.684, p < 0.001; HFLC: F4,28 = 5.924, p < 0.01) over time during the A phase with no effect of diet. Trial duration decreased during the A phase (LFHC: F4,28 = 4.182, p < 0.01; LFHS: F4,28 = 10.77, p < 0.0001; HFLC: F4,28 = 9.533, p < 0.0001) and an effect of diet was found (F2,168 = 4.763, p < 0.05). Further analysis showed that this diet effect was only present during the first trial block A(1-4) where LFHS minipigs took a significantly longer time to complete a trial (p < 0.001) compared to HFLC minipigs. An effect of trial block was found for the M phase for working memory scores (LFHC: F6,42 = 2.908, p < 0.05; LFHS: F6,42 = 3.387, p < 0.01; HFLC: F6,42 = 3.443, p < 0.01), reference memory scores (LFHC: F6,42 = 11.000, p < 0.001; LFHS: F6,42 = 5.505, p < 0.001; HFLC: F6,42 = 8.359, p < 0.001) and trial duration (LFHC: F6,42 = 4.634, p < 0.01; LFHS: F6,42 = 10.830, p < 0.001; HFLC: F6,42 = 11.260, p < 0.001). Diet had no effect on working memory performance or trial duration during the M phase. In contrast, an effect of diet was found on reference memory scores (F2,168 = 7.710, p < 0.01) where LFHC minipigs performed significantly better (p < 0.001) than LFHS and HFLC minipigs during the first trial block; M (1-4). This difference was found for the last three trials of the block (Figure 2). Some effect of trial block was found in the R phase for working memory scores (LFHC: NS; LFHS: NS; HFLC: F8,56 = 4.209, p < 0.001), reference memory scores (LFHC: F8,56 = 9.768, p < 0.001; LFHS: F8,56 = 7.179, p < 0.001; HFLC: F8,56 = 10.340, p < 0.001) and trial duration (LFHC: F8,56 = 4.646, p < 0.001; LFHS: F8,56 = 6.730, p < 0.001; HFLC: F8,56 = 9.759, p < 0.001). No effect of diet was found for reference memory performance or trial duration in the R phase. In contrast, working memory scores were different between diets (F2,168 = 4.091, p < 0.05) with LFHC minipigs performing significantly better (p < 0.01) than HFLC and LFHS minipigs in the first trial block; R(1-4) and second trial block; R(5-8), respectively. We found no fixed search pattern for any of the minipigs when looking at the order in which the bowls were visited.

Bottom Line: We sought to contrast the effect of a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet and a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test.The different diets did not impact levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain tissue and neither did they affect circulatory inflammation measured by concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin in serum.These findings suggest that high dietary intake of both fat and sugar may impair spatial cognition which could be relevant for mental functioning in humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Section of Experimental Animal Models, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

ABSTRACT
Consumption of a high energy diet, containing high amounts of saturated fat and refined sugar has been associated with impairment of cognitive function in rodents and humans. We sought to contrast the effect of a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet and a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test. We found that both working memory and reference memory were impaired by both diets relative to a standard minipig diet high in carbohydrate, low in fat and sugar. The different diets did not impact levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain tissue and neither did they affect circulatory inflammation measured by concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin in serum. However, higher levels of triglycerides were observed for minipigs fed the diets with high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate and low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose compared to minipigs fed a standard minipig diet. This might explain the observed impairments in spatial cognition. These findings suggest that high dietary intake of both fat and sugar may impair spatial cognition which could be relevant for mental functioning in humans.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus