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Population structure and genetic diversity of native and invasive populations of Solanum rostratum (Solanaceae).

Zhao J, Solís-Montero L, Lou A, Vallejo-Marín M - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: We found the highest genetic diversity among Mexican populations of S. rostratum.Genetic diversity was significantly lower in Chinese and U.S.A. populations, but we found no regional difference in inbreeding coefficients (F IS) or population differentiation (F ST).The distinctiveness between some introduced populations indicates multiple introductions of S. rostratum into China.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT

Aims: We investigate native and introduced populations of Solanum rostratum, an annual, self-compatible plant that has been introduced around the globe. This study is the first to compare the genetic diversity of Solanum rostratum between native and introduced populations. We aim to (1) determine the level of genetic diversity across the studied regions; (2) explore the likely origins of invasive populations in China; and (3) investigate whether there is the evidence of multiple introductions into China.

Methods: We genotyped 329 individuals at 10 microsatellite loci to determine the levels of genetic diversity and to investigate population structure of native and introduced populations of S. rostratum. We studied five populations in each of three regions across two continents: Mexico, the U.S.A. and China.

Important findings: We found the highest genetic diversity among Mexican populations of S. rostratum. Genetic diversity was significantly lower in Chinese and U.S.A. populations, but we found no regional difference in inbreeding coefficients (F IS) or population differentiation (F ST). Population structure analyses indicate that Chinese and U.S.A. populations are more closely related to each other than to sampled Mexican populations, revealing that introduced populations in China share an origin with the sampled U.S.A. populations. The distinctiveness between some introduced populations indicates multiple introductions of S. rostratum into China.

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Posterior probability of cluster assignment in nested InStruct analyses of 329 Solanum rostratum individuals genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci across 15 populations in three geographic regions: Mexico, the U.S.A. and China.Each bar represents a single individual with populations separated by black lines and arranged from North to South within each region. Panel A depicts the uppermost level of population structure across regions. The optimal number of clusters (K* = 2) was calculated using Evanno’s et al. [31] ∆K statistic. For illustration, panel B shows the assignment probabilities for K = 3. Panel C represent two separate analyses of either U.S.A./Chinese or Mexican populations; the optimal number of clusters [31] in each of these separate analyses was KUS-C* =KUS-C* = 2. Panel D, shows assignment probabilities for K = 3, for each separate analysis.
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pone-0079807-g004: Posterior probability of cluster assignment in nested InStruct analyses of 329 Solanum rostratum individuals genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci across 15 populations in three geographic regions: Mexico, the U.S.A. and China.Each bar represents a single individual with populations separated by black lines and arranged from North to South within each region. Panel A depicts the uppermost level of population structure across regions. The optimal number of clusters (K* = 2) was calculated using Evanno’s et al. [31] ∆K statistic. For illustration, panel B shows the assignment probabilities for K = 3. Panel C represent two separate analyses of either U.S.A./Chinese or Mexican populations; the optimal number of clusters [31] in each of these separate analyses was KUS-C* =KUS-C* = 2. Panel D, shows assignment probabilities for K = 3, for each separate analysis.

Mentions: The InStruct analysis on the full data set found the strongest support for two clearly differentiated clusters (K* = 2) that corresponded to either Mexican or U.S.A./Chinese populations (Fig. 4). Increasing the number of clusters to K = 3 did not differentiate between US and Chinese populations, and instead individuals from populations in both geographic regions showed similar probabilities to be assigned to either of two clusters (Fig. 4). The BC population was the only one which was clearly assigned to a single of these clusters (Fig. 4). In the analysis within regions, the optimal number of clusters identified for Mexican populations was K* = 3 (Fig. 4). Populations VDU, QSJ and TEM showed little evidence of admixture at this level, while populations SLP and SLG contained individuals assigned to multiple clusters. The separate analysis of populations in the U.S.A. and China found an optimal number of clusters K* = 3 as well. Again, individuals in population BC were clearly differentiated from the rest forming a homogeneous and distinct cluster, but there was little evidence of population structure in other Chinese and U.S.A. populations (Figure 4).


Population structure and genetic diversity of native and invasive populations of Solanum rostratum (Solanaceae).

Zhao J, Solís-Montero L, Lou A, Vallejo-Marín M - PLoS ONE (2013)

Posterior probability of cluster assignment in nested InStruct analyses of 329 Solanum rostratum individuals genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci across 15 populations in three geographic regions: Mexico, the U.S.A. and China.Each bar represents a single individual with populations separated by black lines and arranged from North to South within each region. Panel A depicts the uppermost level of population structure across regions. The optimal number of clusters (K* = 2) was calculated using Evanno’s et al. [31] ∆K statistic. For illustration, panel B shows the assignment probabilities for K = 3. Panel C represent two separate analyses of either U.S.A./Chinese or Mexican populations; the optimal number of clusters [31] in each of these separate analyses was KUS-C* =KUS-C* = 2. Panel D, shows assignment probabilities for K = 3, for each separate analysis.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3818217&req=5

pone-0079807-g004: Posterior probability of cluster assignment in nested InStruct analyses of 329 Solanum rostratum individuals genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci across 15 populations in three geographic regions: Mexico, the U.S.A. and China.Each bar represents a single individual with populations separated by black lines and arranged from North to South within each region. Panel A depicts the uppermost level of population structure across regions. The optimal number of clusters (K* = 2) was calculated using Evanno’s et al. [31] ∆K statistic. For illustration, panel B shows the assignment probabilities for K = 3. Panel C represent two separate analyses of either U.S.A./Chinese or Mexican populations; the optimal number of clusters [31] in each of these separate analyses was KUS-C* =KUS-C* = 2. Panel D, shows assignment probabilities for K = 3, for each separate analysis.
Mentions: The InStruct analysis on the full data set found the strongest support for two clearly differentiated clusters (K* = 2) that corresponded to either Mexican or U.S.A./Chinese populations (Fig. 4). Increasing the number of clusters to K = 3 did not differentiate between US and Chinese populations, and instead individuals from populations in both geographic regions showed similar probabilities to be assigned to either of two clusters (Fig. 4). The BC population was the only one which was clearly assigned to a single of these clusters (Fig. 4). In the analysis within regions, the optimal number of clusters identified for Mexican populations was K* = 3 (Fig. 4). Populations VDU, QSJ and TEM showed little evidence of admixture at this level, while populations SLP and SLG contained individuals assigned to multiple clusters. The separate analysis of populations in the U.S.A. and China found an optimal number of clusters K* = 3 as well. Again, individuals in population BC were clearly differentiated from the rest forming a homogeneous and distinct cluster, but there was little evidence of population structure in other Chinese and U.S.A. populations (Figure 4).

Bottom Line: We found the highest genetic diversity among Mexican populations of S. rostratum.Genetic diversity was significantly lower in Chinese and U.S.A. populations, but we found no regional difference in inbreeding coefficients (F IS) or population differentiation (F ST).The distinctiveness between some introduced populations indicates multiple introductions of S. rostratum into China.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT

Aims: We investigate native and introduced populations of Solanum rostratum, an annual, self-compatible plant that has been introduced around the globe. This study is the first to compare the genetic diversity of Solanum rostratum between native and introduced populations. We aim to (1) determine the level of genetic diversity across the studied regions; (2) explore the likely origins of invasive populations in China; and (3) investigate whether there is the evidence of multiple introductions into China.

Methods: We genotyped 329 individuals at 10 microsatellite loci to determine the levels of genetic diversity and to investigate population structure of native and introduced populations of S. rostratum. We studied five populations in each of three regions across two continents: Mexico, the U.S.A. and China.

Important findings: We found the highest genetic diversity among Mexican populations of S. rostratum. Genetic diversity was significantly lower in Chinese and U.S.A. populations, but we found no regional difference in inbreeding coefficients (F IS) or population differentiation (F ST). Population structure analyses indicate that Chinese and U.S.A. populations are more closely related to each other than to sampled Mexican populations, revealing that introduced populations in China share an origin with the sampled U.S.A. populations. The distinctiveness between some introduced populations indicates multiple introductions of S. rostratum into China.

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