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Genetic and molecular alterations in pancreatic cancer: implications for personalized medicine.

Fang Y, Yao Q, Chen Z, Xiang J, William FE, Gibbs RA, Chen C - Med. Sci. Monit. (2013)

Bottom Line: Recent advances in human genomics and biotechnologies have profound impacts on medical research and clinical practice.Individual genomic information, including DNA sequences and gene expression profiles, can be used for prediction, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment for many complex diseases.In a case of pancreatic cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States, alteration in many genes as well as molecular profiles in blood, pancreas tissue, and pancreas juice has recently been discovered to be closely associated with tumorigenesis or prognosis of the cancer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Surgeon Research Center, Division of Surgical Research, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, U.S.A. and Department of General Surgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, P.R. China.

ABSTRACT
Recent advances in human genomics and biotechnologies have profound impacts on medical research and clinical practice. Individual genomic information, including DNA sequences and gene expression profiles, can be used for prediction, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment for many complex diseases. Personalized medicine attempts to tailor medical care to individual patients by incorporating their genomic information. In a case of pancreatic cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States, alteration in many genes as well as molecular profiles in blood, pancreas tissue, and pancreas juice has recently been discovered to be closely associated with tumorigenesis or prognosis of the cancer. This review aims to summarize recent advances of important genes, proteins, and microRNAs that play a critical role in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer, and to provide implications for personalized medicine in pancreatic cancer.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Personalized medicine program (PMP). Personalized medicine is a new health care model in the post-genomic era. Individual genomic and molecular information can be used by physicians and scientists to make medical decisions tailored to individual patients.
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f2-medscimonit-19-916: Personalized medicine program (PMP). Personalized medicine is a new health care model in the post-genomic era. Individual genomic and molecular information can be used by physicians and scientists to make medical decisions tailored to individual patients.

Mentions: As our understanding of the human genome increases, the Genomic and Personalized Medicine Act was proposed in 2006 [27]. The President’s Council on Advisors on Science and Technology has defined Personalized Medicine, referring “to the tailoring of medical treatment to the individual characteristics of each patient. It does not literally mean the creation of drugs or medical devices that are unique to a patient, but rather the ability to classify individuals into subpopulations that differ in their susceptibility to a particular disease or their response to a specific treatment. Preventive or therapeutic interventions can then be concentrated on those who will benefit, sparing expense and side effects for those who will not”. [28]. Typically, a personalized medicine program (PMP) takes place in multidisciplinary clinics where physicians and scientists tailor medical decisions to the individual patient based on the molecular analysis of patient samples. A PMP should establish clinical and bioinformatics databases, and bio-banks for samples, such as blood and tissues. A PMP can also provide significant research opportunities for translating genetic information into clinical practice [29,30] (Figure 2). For example, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved more than 50 targeted therapies, including antibody and small-molecule drugs, vaccines, and gene therapies, which can be used for the treatment of specific subsets of cancer types based on the gene expression profile of the cancer [31]. FDA has also approved more than 100 drugs with pharmacogenomic information in their labels, such as specific warnings or actions on dosing and adverse effects based on the patient’s genetic or molecular information [32]. Genetic information can also be used to decide whether to perform prophylactic surgeries to prevent certain cancers in high risk populations. For example, prophylactic mastectomy has been performed in women who have a family history of breast cancer or/and carry BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, therefore reducing the incidence of breast cancer [33]. Personalized medicine can be applied to patients with pancreatic cancer [34].


Genetic and molecular alterations in pancreatic cancer: implications for personalized medicine.

Fang Y, Yao Q, Chen Z, Xiang J, William FE, Gibbs RA, Chen C - Med. Sci. Monit. (2013)

Personalized medicine program (PMP). Personalized medicine is a new health care model in the post-genomic era. Individual genomic and molecular information can be used by physicians and scientists to make medical decisions tailored to individual patients.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3818103&req=5

f2-medscimonit-19-916: Personalized medicine program (PMP). Personalized medicine is a new health care model in the post-genomic era. Individual genomic and molecular information can be used by physicians and scientists to make medical decisions tailored to individual patients.
Mentions: As our understanding of the human genome increases, the Genomic and Personalized Medicine Act was proposed in 2006 [27]. The President’s Council on Advisors on Science and Technology has defined Personalized Medicine, referring “to the tailoring of medical treatment to the individual characteristics of each patient. It does not literally mean the creation of drugs or medical devices that are unique to a patient, but rather the ability to classify individuals into subpopulations that differ in their susceptibility to a particular disease or their response to a specific treatment. Preventive or therapeutic interventions can then be concentrated on those who will benefit, sparing expense and side effects for those who will not”. [28]. Typically, a personalized medicine program (PMP) takes place in multidisciplinary clinics where physicians and scientists tailor medical decisions to the individual patient based on the molecular analysis of patient samples. A PMP should establish clinical and bioinformatics databases, and bio-banks for samples, such as blood and tissues. A PMP can also provide significant research opportunities for translating genetic information into clinical practice [29,30] (Figure 2). For example, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved more than 50 targeted therapies, including antibody and small-molecule drugs, vaccines, and gene therapies, which can be used for the treatment of specific subsets of cancer types based on the gene expression profile of the cancer [31]. FDA has also approved more than 100 drugs with pharmacogenomic information in their labels, such as specific warnings or actions on dosing and adverse effects based on the patient’s genetic or molecular information [32]. Genetic information can also be used to decide whether to perform prophylactic surgeries to prevent certain cancers in high risk populations. For example, prophylactic mastectomy has been performed in women who have a family history of breast cancer or/and carry BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, therefore reducing the incidence of breast cancer [33]. Personalized medicine can be applied to patients with pancreatic cancer [34].

Bottom Line: Recent advances in human genomics and biotechnologies have profound impacts on medical research and clinical practice.Individual genomic information, including DNA sequences and gene expression profiles, can be used for prediction, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment for many complex diseases.In a case of pancreatic cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States, alteration in many genes as well as molecular profiles in blood, pancreas tissue, and pancreas juice has recently been discovered to be closely associated with tumorigenesis or prognosis of the cancer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Surgeon Research Center, Division of Surgical Research, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, U.S.A. and Department of General Surgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, P.R. China.

ABSTRACT
Recent advances in human genomics and biotechnologies have profound impacts on medical research and clinical practice. Individual genomic information, including DNA sequences and gene expression profiles, can be used for prediction, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment for many complex diseases. Personalized medicine attempts to tailor medical care to individual patients by incorporating their genomic information. In a case of pancreatic cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States, alteration in many genes as well as molecular profiles in blood, pancreas tissue, and pancreas juice has recently been discovered to be closely associated with tumorigenesis or prognosis of the cancer. This review aims to summarize recent advances of important genes, proteins, and microRNAs that play a critical role in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer, and to provide implications for personalized medicine in pancreatic cancer.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus