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Probiotics genomics.

Siezen RJ, Wilson G - Microb Biotechnol (2010)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Kluyver Centre for Genomics of Industrial Fermentation, TI Food and Nutrition, 6700AN Wageningen, the Netherlands. r.siezen@cmbi.ru.nl

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We were sitting in the Irish pub on quiz night, dumbfounded by trivia questions about ingredients of Mornay sauce and best‐selling Boy Bands, when the following question came up: What are ‘Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host?’ At long last, we had a correct answer: PROBIOTICS! What do probiotics actually do? What is the meaning of ‘confer a health benefit’? Lactobacillus plantarum JDM1 is a widely used Chinese commercial probiotic strain which appears to have lost 100 kb relative to the non‐commercial strain WCFS1, encoding sugar transport and metabolism, possibly due to prolonged growth of this probiotic strain in rich medium... Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC53103, probiotic strains used widely for nearly 20 years in a variety of functional foods, differ only by deletion of 5 kb in ATCC53103, and an inversion of 8.9 kb... SpaA is the major scaffolding protein upon which the minor pili proteins SpaB and SpaC are attached... Using insertional inactivation of spaC, a truncated SpaC protein was produced which resulted in cells with a greatly reduced binding to human mucus... The targeted loss of genomic regions was experimentally validated when growth of the intestinal B.  longum in the laboratory for 1000 generations resulted in two large deletions, one in a bacteriocin‐encoding region, analogous to a predicted deletion event in the commercial strain B.  longum NCC2705... This deletion strain showed a significantly reduced competitive ability against Clostridium difficile and Escherichia coli... At present, many of the commercial probiotic strains originate from the intestine of healthy infants and adults... Current research focuses on the determination of the characteristics these bacteria use to survive and compete successfully in the intestine, and with this knowledge more effective probiotic strains can be identified... And what will be the next hype? Memory‐enhancing drinks would definitely be a commercial success on quiz night in the pub!

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Bacterial and host effector molecules with potential probiotic effects. Lactobacillus strains are able to induce IL‐10‐producing, regulatory T cells (T reg) through DC‐SIGN interaction (1). They can also induce hyporesponsive CD4+ T‐cell populations after DC interaction (2). Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) composition is responsible for the differential modulation of cytokine production (3). Modulation of inflammatory responses by inactivation of the NF‐κB signalling pathway is achieved through proteasome inhibition after IEC recognition of soluble probiotic components (4) or after recognition of bacterial motifs (e.g. CpG DNA by TLR9 receptors) (6). The induction of Hsps (either via 4 or 5) stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton would strengthen the mucosal barrier. Pathogen attachment and growth could be counteracted by strains possessing mannose adhesins (7) or by induction of hBD2 in IECs (8). M cell is an epithelial cell specialized in antigen uptake and transport. Reproduced and adapted with permission from Marco and colleagues (2006), Elsevier Ltd.
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f3: Bacterial and host effector molecules with potential probiotic effects. Lactobacillus strains are able to induce IL‐10‐producing, regulatory T cells (T reg) through DC‐SIGN interaction (1). They can also induce hyporesponsive CD4+ T‐cell populations after DC interaction (2). Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) composition is responsible for the differential modulation of cytokine production (3). Modulation of inflammatory responses by inactivation of the NF‐κB signalling pathway is achieved through proteasome inhibition after IEC recognition of soluble probiotic components (4) or after recognition of bacterial motifs (e.g. CpG DNA by TLR9 receptors) (6). The induction of Hsps (either via 4 or 5) stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton would strengthen the mucosal barrier. Pathogen attachment and growth could be counteracted by strains possessing mannose adhesins (7) or by induction of hBD2 in IECs (8). M cell is an epithelial cell specialized in antigen uptake and transport. Reproduced and adapted with permission from Marco and colleagues (2006), Elsevier Ltd.

Mentions: Host responses to potential probiotics have recently been described in intervention studies in healthy human volunteers. Duodenal mucosa was sampled after intraduodenal infusion (Troost et al., 2008) or oral ingestion (van Baarlen et al., 2009) of L. plantarum WCFS1. The continuous perfusion study showed that after prolonged exposure, mucosal cells switched to a more proliferative phase with upregulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism, cellular growth and development. Cell death and immune responses were triggered, but cell‐death executing cells or inflammatory signals were not expressed. In the second study, consumption of live L. plantarum cells showed striking modulation of NF‐κB‐dependent pathways in mucosal cells, and identified cellular pathways that correlated with the establishment of immune tolerance in healthy adults (van Baarlen et al., 2009). Figure 3 summarizes some of the mechanistic events underlying probiotic effects that are beginning to be understood from these in vitro and in vivo studies.


Probiotics genomics.

Siezen RJ, Wilson G - Microb Biotechnol (2010)

Bacterial and host effector molecules with potential probiotic effects. Lactobacillus strains are able to induce IL‐10‐producing, regulatory T cells (T reg) through DC‐SIGN interaction (1). They can also induce hyporesponsive CD4+ T‐cell populations after DC interaction (2). Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) composition is responsible for the differential modulation of cytokine production (3). Modulation of inflammatory responses by inactivation of the NF‐κB signalling pathway is achieved through proteasome inhibition after IEC recognition of soluble probiotic components (4) or after recognition of bacterial motifs (e.g. CpG DNA by TLR9 receptors) (6). The induction of Hsps (either via 4 or 5) stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton would strengthen the mucosal barrier. Pathogen attachment and growth could be counteracted by strains possessing mannose adhesins (7) or by induction of hBD2 in IECs (8). M cell is an epithelial cell specialized in antigen uptake and transport. Reproduced and adapted with permission from Marco and colleagues (2006), Elsevier Ltd.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3815941&req=5

f3: Bacterial and host effector molecules with potential probiotic effects. Lactobacillus strains are able to induce IL‐10‐producing, regulatory T cells (T reg) through DC‐SIGN interaction (1). They can also induce hyporesponsive CD4+ T‐cell populations after DC interaction (2). Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) composition is responsible for the differential modulation of cytokine production (3). Modulation of inflammatory responses by inactivation of the NF‐κB signalling pathway is achieved through proteasome inhibition after IEC recognition of soluble probiotic components (4) or after recognition of bacterial motifs (e.g. CpG DNA by TLR9 receptors) (6). The induction of Hsps (either via 4 or 5) stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton would strengthen the mucosal barrier. Pathogen attachment and growth could be counteracted by strains possessing mannose adhesins (7) or by induction of hBD2 in IECs (8). M cell is an epithelial cell specialized in antigen uptake and transport. Reproduced and adapted with permission from Marco and colleagues (2006), Elsevier Ltd.
Mentions: Host responses to potential probiotics have recently been described in intervention studies in healthy human volunteers. Duodenal mucosa was sampled after intraduodenal infusion (Troost et al., 2008) or oral ingestion (van Baarlen et al., 2009) of L. plantarum WCFS1. The continuous perfusion study showed that after prolonged exposure, mucosal cells switched to a more proliferative phase with upregulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism, cellular growth and development. Cell death and immune responses were triggered, but cell‐death executing cells or inflammatory signals were not expressed. In the second study, consumption of live L. plantarum cells showed striking modulation of NF‐κB‐dependent pathways in mucosal cells, and identified cellular pathways that correlated with the establishment of immune tolerance in healthy adults (van Baarlen et al., 2009). Figure 3 summarizes some of the mechanistic events underlying probiotic effects that are beginning to be understood from these in vitro and in vivo studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Kluyver Centre for Genomics of Industrial Fermentation, TI Food and Nutrition, 6700AN Wageningen, the Netherlands. r.siezen@cmbi.ru.nl

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

We were sitting in the Irish pub on quiz night, dumbfounded by trivia questions about ingredients of Mornay sauce and best‐selling Boy Bands, when the following question came up: What are ‘Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host?’ At long last, we had a correct answer: PROBIOTICS! What do probiotics actually do? What is the meaning of ‘confer a health benefit’? Lactobacillus plantarum JDM1 is a widely used Chinese commercial probiotic strain which appears to have lost 100 kb relative to the non‐commercial strain WCFS1, encoding sugar transport and metabolism, possibly due to prolonged growth of this probiotic strain in rich medium... Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC53103, probiotic strains used widely for nearly 20 years in a variety of functional foods, differ only by deletion of 5 kb in ATCC53103, and an inversion of 8.9 kb... SpaA is the major scaffolding protein upon which the minor pili proteins SpaB and SpaC are attached... Using insertional inactivation of spaC, a truncated SpaC protein was produced which resulted in cells with a greatly reduced binding to human mucus... The targeted loss of genomic regions was experimentally validated when growth of the intestinal B.  longum in the laboratory for 1000 generations resulted in two large deletions, one in a bacteriocin‐encoding region, analogous to a predicted deletion event in the commercial strain B.  longum NCC2705... This deletion strain showed a significantly reduced competitive ability against Clostridium difficile and Escherichia coli... At present, many of the commercial probiotic strains originate from the intestine of healthy infants and adults... Current research focuses on the determination of the characteristics these bacteria use to survive and compete successfully in the intestine, and with this knowledge more effective probiotic strains can be identified... And what will be the next hype? Memory‐enhancing drinks would definitely be a commercial success on quiz night in the pub!

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus