Chitosan and its antimicrobial potential--a critical literature survey.
Bottom Line: The term 'chitosan' describes a heterogeneous group of polymers combining a group of physicochemical and biological characteristics, which allow for a wide scope of applications that are both fascinating and as yet uncharted.However, understanding the various factors that affect its antimicrobial activity has become a key issue for a better usage and a more efficient optimization of chitosan formulations.Moreover, the use of chitosan in antimicrobial systems should be based on sufficient knowledge of the complex mechanisms of its antimicrobial mode of action, which in turn would help to arrive at an appreciation of its entire antimicrobial potential.
Affiliation: Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology (IMMIP), Pharmaceutical Microbiology Unit, University of Bonn, D-53115 Bonn, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.orgShow MeSH
Mentions: The term cell envelope comprises both the cell wall and the cytoplasmic membrane of a bacterial cell; it also includes the semiâpermeable lipid bilayer (outer membrane) of Gramânegative bacteria, which acts as an additional diffusion barrier. The staphylococcal cell wall is composed of multilayers of murein, where glycan strands of alternating Î˛â1â4âlinked GlcNAcâMurNAc disaccharides are crossâlinked by short peptides. Extending to the surface of the peptidoglycan layer are teichoic acids, which are essential polyanionic polymers found only in the cell wall of Gramâpositive bacteria that contribute to the negative charge of the cell wall (Fig.â2); similar polymeric structures, referred to as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), are found in the outer membrane of Gramânegative bacteria. The Staphylococcus aureus cell membrane consists of three major phospholipid (PL) species: negatively charged phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin, and positively charged lysylâphosphatidylglycerol (LPG), the latter accounting for 14â38% of the total PL content of the S. aureus cytoplasmic membrane (Peschel etâal., 2001).
Affiliation: Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology (IMMIP), Pharmaceutical Microbiology Unit, University of Bonn, D-53115 Bonn, Germany. email@example.com