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Chitosan and its antimicrobial potential--a critical literature survey.

Raafat D, Sahl HG - Microb Biotechnol (2009)

Bottom Line: The term 'chitosan' describes a heterogeneous group of polymers combining a group of physicochemical and biological characteristics, which allow for a wide scope of applications that are both fascinating and as yet uncharted.However, understanding the various factors that affect its antimicrobial activity has become a key issue for a better usage and a more efficient optimization of chitosan formulations.Moreover, the use of chitosan in antimicrobial systems should be based on sufficient knowledge of the complex mechanisms of its antimicrobial mode of action, which in turn would help to arrive at an appreciation of its entire antimicrobial potential.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology (IMMIP), Pharmaceutical Microbiology Unit, University of Bonn, D-53115 Bonn, Germany. dina_raafat@yahoo.com

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Chemical structure of chitosan, its production from chitin and the specificity of chitosanases. Chitosan is a (1→4)‐linked 2‐amino‐2‐deoxy‐β‐d‐glucan, prepared from chitin through alkaline hydrolysis of the N‐acetyl groups. Upon further hydrolysis, for example, with the help of chitosanases (indicated by black arrows), low‐MW oligosaccharides are produced.
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f1: Chemical structure of chitosan, its production from chitin and the specificity of chitosanases. Chitosan is a (1→4)‐linked 2‐amino‐2‐deoxy‐β‐d‐glucan, prepared from chitin through alkaline hydrolysis of the N‐acetyl groups. Upon further hydrolysis, for example, with the help of chitosanases (indicated by black arrows), low‐MW oligosaccharides are produced.

Mentions: Chitosan is primarily produced from chitin, which is widely distributed in nature, mainly as the structural component of the exoskeletons of arthropods (including crustaceans and insects), in marine diatoms and algae, as well as in some fungal cell walls. Structurally, chitin is an insoluble linear mucopolysaccharide (Fig. 1) consisting of N‐acetyl‐d‐glucosamine (GlcNAc) repeat units, linked by β‐(1→4) glycosidic bonds (Tharanathan and Kittur, 2003). Technically, the structure of chitin is highly related to that of cellulose and may be regarded as cellulose where the hydroxyl [—OH] at the C‐2 position is replaced by an acetamido [—NHCOCH3] group (Suzuki, 2000).


Chitosan and its antimicrobial potential--a critical literature survey.

Raafat D, Sahl HG - Microb Biotechnol (2009)

Chemical structure of chitosan, its production from chitin and the specificity of chitosanases. Chitosan is a (1→4)‐linked 2‐amino‐2‐deoxy‐β‐d‐glucan, prepared from chitin through alkaline hydrolysis of the N‐acetyl groups. Upon further hydrolysis, for example, with the help of chitosanases (indicated by black arrows), low‐MW oligosaccharides are produced.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3815839&req=5

f1: Chemical structure of chitosan, its production from chitin and the specificity of chitosanases. Chitosan is a (1→4)‐linked 2‐amino‐2‐deoxy‐β‐d‐glucan, prepared from chitin through alkaline hydrolysis of the N‐acetyl groups. Upon further hydrolysis, for example, with the help of chitosanases (indicated by black arrows), low‐MW oligosaccharides are produced.
Mentions: Chitosan is primarily produced from chitin, which is widely distributed in nature, mainly as the structural component of the exoskeletons of arthropods (including crustaceans and insects), in marine diatoms and algae, as well as in some fungal cell walls. Structurally, chitin is an insoluble linear mucopolysaccharide (Fig. 1) consisting of N‐acetyl‐d‐glucosamine (GlcNAc) repeat units, linked by β‐(1→4) glycosidic bonds (Tharanathan and Kittur, 2003). Technically, the structure of chitin is highly related to that of cellulose and may be regarded as cellulose where the hydroxyl [—OH] at the C‐2 position is replaced by an acetamido [—NHCOCH3] group (Suzuki, 2000).

Bottom Line: The term 'chitosan' describes a heterogeneous group of polymers combining a group of physicochemical and biological characteristics, which allow for a wide scope of applications that are both fascinating and as yet uncharted.However, understanding the various factors that affect its antimicrobial activity has become a key issue for a better usage and a more efficient optimization of chitosan formulations.Moreover, the use of chitosan in antimicrobial systems should be based on sufficient knowledge of the complex mechanisms of its antimicrobial mode of action, which in turn would help to arrive at an appreciation of its entire antimicrobial potential.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology (IMMIP), Pharmaceutical Microbiology Unit, University of Bonn, D-53115 Bonn, Germany. dina_raafat@yahoo.com

Show MeSH