Nanoparticles for transcutaneous vaccination.
Bottom Line: However, the stratum corneum (SC) is a most effective barrier against the invasion of topically applied vaccines.Therefore, nanoformulations of vaccines for transcutaneous immunization are currently a very dynamic field of research.The potential and pitfalls associated with these three classes of carriers will be discussed.
Affiliation: Department of Drug Delivery, Helmholtz-Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland-HIPS, Helmholtz-Center for Infection Research-HZI, Saarbruecken, Germany. email@example.comShow MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus
Mentions: This review will focus on opportunities for using nanoparticles for transcutaneous vaccination. The main part of the review will deal with non‐barrier compromising methods and outline three possible routes of absorption which are each favoured by different types of nano‐delivery devices (Fig. 1). At first rigid nanoparticles are discussed. Below a critical size of less than 10 nm these so‐called superfine particles are able to invade via the SC lipid bilayers. Particles larger than that stay on the skin surface in non‐barrier compromised skin. For them the trans‐follicular route is important, which is discussed next. Third, ultradeformable liposomes will be reviewed, which despite their nominal size of normally around 100–200 nm can squeeze through the much narrower SC lipid bilayers due to their flexibility. The potential and draw‐backs of using these different types of nano‐delivery devices for TCI is discussed. In a second part, shortly, the potential of combining nanoparticle formulations of antigen with barrier disrupting methods will be reviewed. Features, advantages and limitations of all vaccination strategies are summarized in Table 1.
Affiliation: Department of Drug Delivery, Helmholtz-Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland-HIPS, Helmholtz-Center for Infection Research-HZI, Saarbruecken, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org