Natural products for cancer chemotherapy.
Bottom Line: A vast array of biological metabolites can be obtained from the marine world, which can be used for effective cancer treatment.In addition, the high toxicity usually associated with some cancer chemotherapy drugs and their undesirable side-effects increase the demand for novel anti-tumour drugs active against untreatable tumours, with fewer side-effects and/or with greater therapeutic efficiency.This review points out those technologies needed to produce the anti-tumour compounds of the future.
Affiliation: Charles A Dana Research Institute for Scientists Emeriti, Drew University, Madison, NJ 07940, USA. email@example.comShow MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus
Mentions: Taxol (paclitaxel), a diterpene alkaloid, has been a very successful anti‐tumour molecule. An outline of taxol biosynthesis is shown in Fig. 4 (Dejong et al., 2005). It was originally discovered in plants but has also been found to be a fungal metabolite (Stierle et al., 1993). Fungi, such as Taxomyces adreanae, Pestalotiopsis microspora, Tubercularia sp. and Phyllosticta citricarpa, produce taxol (Stierle et al., 1993; Li et al., 1996; Wang et al., 2000). Production by P. citricarpa is rather low, i.e. 265 µg l−1 (Kumaran et al., 2008). However, it is claimed that another fungus, Alternaria alternate var monosporus from the bark of Taxus yunanensis, after ultraviolet and nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis, can produce taxol at the high level of 227 mg l−1 (Duan et al., 2008). Originally isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree (Taxus brevifolia), taxol showed anti‐tumour activity but it took six trees of 100 years of age to treat one cancer patient (Horwitz, 1994). Today, it is produced by plant cell culture or by semisynthesis from taxoids made by Taxus species. These species make more than 350 known taxoid compounds (Baloglu and Kingston, 1999).
Affiliation: Charles A Dana Research Institute for Scientists Emeriti, Drew University, Madison, NJ 07940, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org