Regulation and compartmentalization of β-lactam biosynthesis.
Bottom Line: Similarly, the Acremonium two-component CefD1-CefD2 epimerization system is also located in microbodies.This compartmentalization implies intracellular transport of isopenicillin N (in the penicillin pathway) or isopenicillin N and penicillin N in the cephalosporin route.Two transporters of the MFS family cefT and cefM are involved in transport of intermediates and/or secretion of cephalosporins.
Affiliation: Institute of Biotechnology of León, Science Park, Avda. Real 1, 24006 León, Spain. email@example.comShow MeSH
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Mentions: Based on these results, we propose a hypothetical model of compartmentalization in the biosynthesis of cephalosporins (Fig. 5). This compartmentalization model starts with the ACV and IPN synthesis in the cytosol by cytoplasmic ACV synthetase and IPN synthase (Evers et al., 2004). Later the IPN is transported to the peroxisome where it is converted in PenN by the two‐protein (CefD1–CefD2) epimerization system (Ullán et al., 2002a). Afterwards, the penicillin N is transported to the cytosol, by means of the CefM carrier (Teijeira et al., 2009), where the two last enzymes of the cephalosporin pathway synthesize cephalosporin C (van de Kamp et al., 1999; Evers et al., 2004). On the other hand, the secretion of intermediates of the cephalosporin C biosynthetic pathway in A. chrysogenum appears to be performed by the CefT trasporter (Fig. 5). Although the CefT protein has not been yet localized in A. chrysogenum using fluorescent dyes, heterologous expression of the CefT–GFP fusion in P. chrysogenum indicates that it is located in the plasma membrane (Nijland et al., 2008).
Affiliation: Institute of Biotechnology of León, Science Park, Avda. Real 1, 24006 León, Spain. firstname.lastname@example.org