Comparative genome-wide analysis of small RNAs of major Gram-positive pathogens: from identification to application.
Bottom Line: The detection of small RNAs (sRNAs) in bacteria has attracted considerable attention as an emerging class of new gene expression regulators.In many respects, sRNA screens in this model system have set a blueprint for the global and functional identification of sRNAs for Gram-positive microbes, but the functional role of sRNAs in colonization and pathogenicity for Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis and Clostridium difficile is almost completely unknown.Finally, we discuss the use of modified peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) as a novel tool to inactivate potential sRNA and their applications in rapid and specific detection of pathogenic bacteria.
Affiliation: Institute of Medical Microbiology, Justus-Liebig-University, Frankfurter Strasse 107, 35392 Giessen, Germany.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Several different formats for rapid diagnostic tests based on nucleic acid interactions have been described in the literature. Many of them are PCR‐based with the Genexpert system produced by Cepheid (Sunnyvale, CA) being the most advanced as it integrates sample preparation, amplification and detection (Chandler et al., 2001). These methods require experienced personnel and need 30–60 min for an assay to be completed. Therefore they are not suitable for point‐of‐care (POC) testing, the ultimate goal in the development of rapid diagnostic screening tests. An alternative and more cost‐effective approach to nucleic acid testing is the use of a lateral‐flow platform. Lateral‐flow assays (LFAs) were originally developed as immunoassays and combine chromatographic purification with immunodetection at high speed (Fig. 2A). They are very simple in handling and represent the only true POC test up to now (Seal et al., 2006).
Affiliation: Institute of Medical Microbiology, Justus-Liebig-University, Frankfurter Strasse 107, 35392 Giessen, Germany.