Comparative genome-wide analysis of small RNAs of major Gram-positive pathogens: from identification to application.
Bottom Line: The detection of small RNAs (sRNAs) in bacteria has attracted considerable attention as an emerging class of new gene expression regulators.In many respects, sRNA screens in this model system have set a blueprint for the global and functional identification of sRNAs for Gram-positive microbes, but the functional role of sRNAs in colonization and pathogenicity for Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis and Clostridium difficile is almost completely unknown.Finally, we discuss the use of modified peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) as a novel tool to inactivate potential sRNA and their applications in rapid and specific detection of pathogenic bacteria.
Affiliation: Institute of Medical Microbiology, Justus-Liebig-University, Frankfurter Strasse 107, 35392 Giessen, Germany.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Meeting the challenge to find modifications that provide efficient and specific antisense activity in vivo without being toxic, a third generation of antisense agents have emerged (Fig. 1). Analogues such as LNAs, phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) and PNAs are altogether no substrates for enzymatic degradation and hybridize with exceptional affinity and target specificity, thereby forming duplexes which are even more stable than the respective RNA:RNA duplexes themselves. A short general overview on PNAs, LNAs and morpholinos was published recently (Karkare and Bhatnagar, 2006).
Affiliation: Institute of Medical Microbiology, Justus-Liebig-University, Frankfurter Strasse 107, 35392 Giessen, Germany.