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Cryptic genetic diversity is paramount in small-bodied amphibians of the genus Euparkerella (Anura: Craugastoridae) endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

Fusinatto LA, Alexandrino J, Haddad CF, Brunes TO, Rocha CF, Sequeira F - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Morphological similarity associated to restricted distributions and low dispersal abilities make the direct developing "Terrarana" frogs of the genus Euparkerella a good model for examining diversification processes.The analysis of 39 individuals from the four known Euparkerella species uncovered high levels of genetic diversity, especially within the two previously morphologically-defined E. cochranae and E. brasiliensis.These six units were also uncovered in the Bayesian clustering analysis, and supported by the Bayesian coalescent-based species delimitation (BPP), and Genealogical Sorting Index (GSI), providing thus strong evidence for underestimation of the current levels of diversity within Euparkerella.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
Morphological similarity associated to restricted distributions and low dispersal abilities make the direct developing "Terrarana" frogs of the genus Euparkerella a good model for examining diversification processes. We here infer phylogenetic relationships within the genus Euparkerella, using DNA sequence data from one mitochondrial and four nuclear genes coupled with traditional Bayesian phylogenetic reconstruction approaches and more recent coalescent methods of species tree inference. We also used Bayesian clustering analysis and a recent Bayesian coalescent-based approach specifically to infer species delimitation. The analysis of 39 individuals from the four known Euparkerella species uncovered high levels of genetic diversity, especially within the two previously morphologically-defined E. cochranae and E. brasiliensis. Within these species, the gene trees at five independent loci and trees from combined data (concatenated dataset and the species tree) uncovered six deeply diverged and geographically coherent evolutionary units, which may have diverged between the Miocene and the Pleistocene. These six units were also uncovered in the Bayesian clustering analysis, and supported by the Bayesian coalescent-based species delimitation (BPP), and Genealogical Sorting Index (GSI), providing thus strong evidence for underestimation of the current levels of diversity within Euparkerella. The cryptic diversity now uncovered opens new opportunities to examine the origins and maintenance of microendemism in the context of spatial heterogeneity and/or human induced fragmentation of the highly threatened Brazilian Atlantic forest hotspot.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Samples localities of Euparkerella.Numbers corresponds to populations of: Euparkerella tridactyla (1); E. robusta (2); E. cochranae (3,4); E. brasiliensis (5–7) and Euparkerella sp. (8).
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pone-0079504-g002: Samples localities of Euparkerella.Numbers corresponds to populations of: Euparkerella tridactyla (1); E. robusta (2); E. cochranae (3,4); E. brasiliensis (5–7) and Euparkerella sp. (8).

Mentions: We analyzed 39 individuals from all the four known Euparkerella species, from 15 localities (28 collected in this study and 11 from scientific collections; Fig. 2; Table S1 in file S1), and one sample from the outgroup species Barycholos ternetzi [19]. All field collections did not involve endangered or protected species, and were obtained under appropriate permits (Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade - ICMBio, permit number 18887; and Instituto Estadual do Ambiente - INEA, permit number 040/2010). Techniques used to capture, tissue sampling and euthanasia sought to minimize animal suffering and were in accordance with recommendations of the Herpetological Animal Care and Use Committee (HACC) of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists (available at: http://www.asih.org/publications), as well as were accepted by ICMBio and INEA. When collected, individuals were euthanized using an anesthetic application over the skin (5 % Lidocaine), whereas other samples were obtained by toe clipping and followed by specimen release in the field. Prior to toe clipping, a suitable level of anesthetic was applied in the local of incision (2% Lidocaine).


Cryptic genetic diversity is paramount in small-bodied amphibians of the genus Euparkerella (Anura: Craugastoridae) endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

Fusinatto LA, Alexandrino J, Haddad CF, Brunes TO, Rocha CF, Sequeira F - PLoS ONE (2013)

Samples localities of Euparkerella.Numbers corresponds to populations of: Euparkerella tridactyla (1); E. robusta (2); E. cochranae (3,4); E. brasiliensis (5–7) and Euparkerella sp. (8).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3815154&req=5

pone-0079504-g002: Samples localities of Euparkerella.Numbers corresponds to populations of: Euparkerella tridactyla (1); E. robusta (2); E. cochranae (3,4); E. brasiliensis (5–7) and Euparkerella sp. (8).
Mentions: We analyzed 39 individuals from all the four known Euparkerella species, from 15 localities (28 collected in this study and 11 from scientific collections; Fig. 2; Table S1 in file S1), and one sample from the outgroup species Barycholos ternetzi [19]. All field collections did not involve endangered or protected species, and were obtained under appropriate permits (Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade - ICMBio, permit number 18887; and Instituto Estadual do Ambiente - INEA, permit number 040/2010). Techniques used to capture, tissue sampling and euthanasia sought to minimize animal suffering and were in accordance with recommendations of the Herpetological Animal Care and Use Committee (HACC) of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists (available at: http://www.asih.org/publications), as well as were accepted by ICMBio and INEA. When collected, individuals were euthanized using an anesthetic application over the skin (5 % Lidocaine), whereas other samples were obtained by toe clipping and followed by specimen release in the field. Prior to toe clipping, a suitable level of anesthetic was applied in the local of incision (2% Lidocaine).

Bottom Line: Morphological similarity associated to restricted distributions and low dispersal abilities make the direct developing "Terrarana" frogs of the genus Euparkerella a good model for examining diversification processes.The analysis of 39 individuals from the four known Euparkerella species uncovered high levels of genetic diversity, especially within the two previously morphologically-defined E. cochranae and E. brasiliensis.These six units were also uncovered in the Bayesian clustering analysis, and supported by the Bayesian coalescent-based species delimitation (BPP), and Genealogical Sorting Index (GSI), providing thus strong evidence for underestimation of the current levels of diversity within Euparkerella.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
Morphological similarity associated to restricted distributions and low dispersal abilities make the direct developing "Terrarana" frogs of the genus Euparkerella a good model for examining diversification processes. We here infer phylogenetic relationships within the genus Euparkerella, using DNA sequence data from one mitochondrial and four nuclear genes coupled with traditional Bayesian phylogenetic reconstruction approaches and more recent coalescent methods of species tree inference. We also used Bayesian clustering analysis and a recent Bayesian coalescent-based approach specifically to infer species delimitation. The analysis of 39 individuals from the four known Euparkerella species uncovered high levels of genetic diversity, especially within the two previously morphologically-defined E. cochranae and E. brasiliensis. Within these species, the gene trees at five independent loci and trees from combined data (concatenated dataset and the species tree) uncovered six deeply diverged and geographically coherent evolutionary units, which may have diverged between the Miocene and the Pleistocene. These six units were also uncovered in the Bayesian clustering analysis, and supported by the Bayesian coalescent-based species delimitation (BPP), and Genealogical Sorting Index (GSI), providing thus strong evidence for underestimation of the current levels of diversity within Euparkerella. The cryptic diversity now uncovered opens new opportunities to examine the origins and maintenance of microendemism in the context of spatial heterogeneity and/or human induced fragmentation of the highly threatened Brazilian Atlantic forest hotspot.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus