Limits...
Cryptic genetic diversity is paramount in small-bodied amphibians of the genus Euparkerella (Anura: Craugastoridae) endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

Fusinatto LA, Alexandrino J, Haddad CF, Brunes TO, Rocha CF, Sequeira F - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Morphological similarity associated to restricted distributions and low dispersal abilities make the direct developing "Terrarana" frogs of the genus Euparkerella a good model for examining diversification processes.The analysis of 39 individuals from the four known Euparkerella species uncovered high levels of genetic diversity, especially within the two previously morphologically-defined E. cochranae and E. brasiliensis.These six units were also uncovered in the Bayesian clustering analysis, and supported by the Bayesian coalescent-based species delimitation (BPP), and Genealogical Sorting Index (GSI), providing thus strong evidence for underestimation of the current levels of diversity within Euparkerella.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
Morphological similarity associated to restricted distributions and low dispersal abilities make the direct developing "Terrarana" frogs of the genus Euparkerella a good model for examining diversification processes. We here infer phylogenetic relationships within the genus Euparkerella, using DNA sequence data from one mitochondrial and four nuclear genes coupled with traditional Bayesian phylogenetic reconstruction approaches and more recent coalescent methods of species tree inference. We also used Bayesian clustering analysis and a recent Bayesian coalescent-based approach specifically to infer species delimitation. The analysis of 39 individuals from the four known Euparkerella species uncovered high levels of genetic diversity, especially within the two previously morphologically-defined E. cochranae and E. brasiliensis. Within these species, the gene trees at five independent loci and trees from combined data (concatenated dataset and the species tree) uncovered six deeply diverged and geographically coherent evolutionary units, which may have diverged between the Miocene and the Pleistocene. These six units were also uncovered in the Bayesian clustering analysis, and supported by the Bayesian coalescent-based species delimitation (BPP), and Genealogical Sorting Index (GSI), providing thus strong evidence for underestimation of the current levels of diversity within Euparkerella. The cryptic diversity now uncovered opens new opportunities to examine the origins and maintenance of microendemism in the context of spatial heterogeneity and/or human induced fragmentation of the highly threatened Brazilian Atlantic forest hotspot.

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Euparkerella brasiliensis. From Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro State. Locality 5d. (Photo: L. A. Fusinatto) .
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pone-0079504-g001: Euparkerella brasiliensis. From Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro State. Locality 5d. (Photo: L. A. Fusinatto) .

Mentions: The genus Euparkerella (Craugastoridae) is one of the least known of the Terrarana [16,19]. It currently consists of four morphologically-based species - E. brasiliensis (Parker, 1926) (Figure 1), E. cochranae Izecksohn, 1988, E. robusta Izecksohn, 1988, and E. tridactyla Izecksohn, 1988. These species, distinguishable only by cryptic morphological traits [23], are restricted to small areas of Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil [23,24]. One of the most impressive characteristic of Euparkerella species is their small body size (maximum SVL around 22 mm) with extremely reduced digits compared to those of their larger relatives [19], features that are commonly associated with the process of miniaturization [26]. The reduction of adult body size is a recurrent tendency in the evolution of amphibians, being strongly associated with terrestrial life history [25,26]. Small body size and associated traits (e.g., digit reduction) were recently suggested to be innovative morphological features resulting from microhabitat adaptation, that would reduce the vagility and the physiological tolerance of species, ultimately concurring to geographic range restriction and fragmentation, and higher population structure and diversification rates [26,27]. So, morphological similarity and restricted distributions with predicted low dispersal abilities make the genus Euparkerella a good model for examining diversification processes.


Cryptic genetic diversity is paramount in small-bodied amphibians of the genus Euparkerella (Anura: Craugastoridae) endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

Fusinatto LA, Alexandrino J, Haddad CF, Brunes TO, Rocha CF, Sequeira F - PLoS ONE (2013)

Euparkerella brasiliensis. From Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro State. Locality 5d. (Photo: L. A. Fusinatto) .
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3815154&req=5

pone-0079504-g001: Euparkerella brasiliensis. From Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro State. Locality 5d. (Photo: L. A. Fusinatto) .
Mentions: The genus Euparkerella (Craugastoridae) is one of the least known of the Terrarana [16,19]. It currently consists of four morphologically-based species - E. brasiliensis (Parker, 1926) (Figure 1), E. cochranae Izecksohn, 1988, E. robusta Izecksohn, 1988, and E. tridactyla Izecksohn, 1988. These species, distinguishable only by cryptic morphological traits [23], are restricted to small areas of Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil [23,24]. One of the most impressive characteristic of Euparkerella species is their small body size (maximum SVL around 22 mm) with extremely reduced digits compared to those of their larger relatives [19], features that are commonly associated with the process of miniaturization [26]. The reduction of adult body size is a recurrent tendency in the evolution of amphibians, being strongly associated with terrestrial life history [25,26]. Small body size and associated traits (e.g., digit reduction) were recently suggested to be innovative morphological features resulting from microhabitat adaptation, that would reduce the vagility and the physiological tolerance of species, ultimately concurring to geographic range restriction and fragmentation, and higher population structure and diversification rates [26,27]. So, morphological similarity and restricted distributions with predicted low dispersal abilities make the genus Euparkerella a good model for examining diversification processes.

Bottom Line: Morphological similarity associated to restricted distributions and low dispersal abilities make the direct developing "Terrarana" frogs of the genus Euparkerella a good model for examining diversification processes.The analysis of 39 individuals from the four known Euparkerella species uncovered high levels of genetic diversity, especially within the two previously morphologically-defined E. cochranae and E. brasiliensis.These six units were also uncovered in the Bayesian clustering analysis, and supported by the Bayesian coalescent-based species delimitation (BPP), and Genealogical Sorting Index (GSI), providing thus strong evidence for underestimation of the current levels of diversity within Euparkerella.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
Morphological similarity associated to restricted distributions and low dispersal abilities make the direct developing "Terrarana" frogs of the genus Euparkerella a good model for examining diversification processes. We here infer phylogenetic relationships within the genus Euparkerella, using DNA sequence data from one mitochondrial and four nuclear genes coupled with traditional Bayesian phylogenetic reconstruction approaches and more recent coalescent methods of species tree inference. We also used Bayesian clustering analysis and a recent Bayesian coalescent-based approach specifically to infer species delimitation. The analysis of 39 individuals from the four known Euparkerella species uncovered high levels of genetic diversity, especially within the two previously morphologically-defined E. cochranae and E. brasiliensis. Within these species, the gene trees at five independent loci and trees from combined data (concatenated dataset and the species tree) uncovered six deeply diverged and geographically coherent evolutionary units, which may have diverged between the Miocene and the Pleistocene. These six units were also uncovered in the Bayesian clustering analysis, and supported by the Bayesian coalescent-based species delimitation (BPP), and Genealogical Sorting Index (GSI), providing thus strong evidence for underestimation of the current levels of diversity within Euparkerella. The cryptic diversity now uncovered opens new opportunities to examine the origins and maintenance of microendemism in the context of spatial heterogeneity and/or human induced fragmentation of the highly threatened Brazilian Atlantic forest hotspot.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus