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Microbial environment affects innate immunity in two closely related earthworm species Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida.

Dvořák J, Mančíková V, Pižl V, Elhottová D, Silerová M, Roubalová R, Skanta F, Procházková P, Bilej M - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: While E. andrei lives in a compost and manure, E. fetida can be found in the litter layer in forests.Genomic DNA analyses revealed significantly higher level of fetidin/lysenins (determined using universal primer pairs) in E. andrei compared to E. fetida.It can be hypothesized that E. andrei colonizing compost as a new habitat acquired an evolutionary selection advantage resulting in a higher expression of antimicrobial proteins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Institute of Microbiology of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., Prague, Czech Republic.

ABSTRACT
Survival of earthworms in the environment depends on their ability to recognize and eliminate potential pathogens. This work is aimed to compare the innate defense mechanisms of two closely related earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida, that inhabit substantially different ecological niches. While E. andrei lives in a compost and manure, E. fetida can be found in the litter layer in forests. Therefore, the influence of environment-specific microbiota on the immune response of both species was followed. Firstly, a reliable method to discern between E. andrei and E. fetida based on species-specific primers for cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and stringent PCR conditions was developed. Secondly, to analyze the immunological profile in both earthworm species, the activity and expression of lysozyme, pattern recognition protein CCF, and antimicrobial proteins with hemolytic function, fetidin and lysenins, have been assessed. Whereas, CCF and lysozyme showed only slight differences in the expression and activity, fetidin/lysenins expression as well as the hemolytic activity was considerably higher in E. andrei as compared to E. fetida. The expression of fetidin/lysenins in E. fetida was not affected upon the challenge with compost microbiota, suggesting more substantial changes in the regulation of the gene expression. Genomic DNA analyses revealed significantly higher level of fetidin/lysenins (determined using universal primer pairs) in E. andrei compared to E. fetida. It can be hypothesized that E. andrei colonizing compost as a new habitat acquired an evolutionary selection advantage resulting in a higher expression of antimicrobial proteins.

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Comparison of gene expression levels in E. andrei and E. fetida.Gene expression levels of selected genes (CCF, lysozyme, fetidin/lysenins genes) in E. andrei and E. fetida earthworms upon bacterial cross-colonization determined by real-time PCR and normalized for the reference gene RPL17 (ribosomal protein L17). Fold change in the gene expression are relative to the expression in earthworms maintained with bacteria isolated from their natural environment. The values are the means of three independent experiments (± SD) performed in duplicates (* P < 0.05).
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pone-0079257-g006: Comparison of gene expression levels in E. andrei and E. fetida.Gene expression levels of selected genes (CCF, lysozyme, fetidin/lysenins genes) in E. andrei and E. fetida earthworms upon bacterial cross-colonization determined by real-time PCR and normalized for the reference gene RPL17 (ribosomal protein L17). Fold change in the gene expression are relative to the expression in earthworms maintained with bacteria isolated from their natural environment. The values are the means of three independent experiments (± SD) performed in duplicates (* P < 0.05).

Mentions: To observe the influence of microbiota on the expression of selected genes (CCF, lysozyme, fetidin/lysenis) cross-colonization experiments were performed. The gene expression analysis has revealed an increase of fetidin/lysenins in E. andrei, while the expression of the same genes displays only minimal changes in E. fetida. Changes in the gene expression of CCF and lysozyme are not significant in both species (Figure 6).


Microbial environment affects innate immunity in two closely related earthworm species Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida.

Dvořák J, Mančíková V, Pižl V, Elhottová D, Silerová M, Roubalová R, Skanta F, Procházková P, Bilej M - PLoS ONE (2013)

Comparison of gene expression levels in E. andrei and E. fetida.Gene expression levels of selected genes (CCF, lysozyme, fetidin/lysenins genes) in E. andrei and E. fetida earthworms upon bacterial cross-colonization determined by real-time PCR and normalized for the reference gene RPL17 (ribosomal protein L17). Fold change in the gene expression are relative to the expression in earthworms maintained with bacteria isolated from their natural environment. The values are the means of three independent experiments (± SD) performed in duplicates (* P < 0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3815151&req=5

pone-0079257-g006: Comparison of gene expression levels in E. andrei and E. fetida.Gene expression levels of selected genes (CCF, lysozyme, fetidin/lysenins genes) in E. andrei and E. fetida earthworms upon bacterial cross-colonization determined by real-time PCR and normalized for the reference gene RPL17 (ribosomal protein L17). Fold change in the gene expression are relative to the expression in earthworms maintained with bacteria isolated from their natural environment. The values are the means of three independent experiments (± SD) performed in duplicates (* P < 0.05).
Mentions: To observe the influence of microbiota on the expression of selected genes (CCF, lysozyme, fetidin/lysenis) cross-colonization experiments were performed. The gene expression analysis has revealed an increase of fetidin/lysenins in E. andrei, while the expression of the same genes displays only minimal changes in E. fetida. Changes in the gene expression of CCF and lysozyme are not significant in both species (Figure 6).

Bottom Line: While E. andrei lives in a compost and manure, E. fetida can be found in the litter layer in forests.Genomic DNA analyses revealed significantly higher level of fetidin/lysenins (determined using universal primer pairs) in E. andrei compared to E. fetida.It can be hypothesized that E. andrei colonizing compost as a new habitat acquired an evolutionary selection advantage resulting in a higher expression of antimicrobial proteins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Institute of Microbiology of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., Prague, Czech Republic.

ABSTRACT
Survival of earthworms in the environment depends on their ability to recognize and eliminate potential pathogens. This work is aimed to compare the innate defense mechanisms of two closely related earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida, that inhabit substantially different ecological niches. While E. andrei lives in a compost and manure, E. fetida can be found in the litter layer in forests. Therefore, the influence of environment-specific microbiota on the immune response of both species was followed. Firstly, a reliable method to discern between E. andrei and E. fetida based on species-specific primers for cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and stringent PCR conditions was developed. Secondly, to analyze the immunological profile in both earthworm species, the activity and expression of lysozyme, pattern recognition protein CCF, and antimicrobial proteins with hemolytic function, fetidin and lysenins, have been assessed. Whereas, CCF and lysozyme showed only slight differences in the expression and activity, fetidin/lysenins expression as well as the hemolytic activity was considerably higher in E. andrei as compared to E. fetida. The expression of fetidin/lysenins in E. fetida was not affected upon the challenge with compost microbiota, suggesting more substantial changes in the regulation of the gene expression. Genomic DNA analyses revealed significantly higher level of fetidin/lysenins (determined using universal primer pairs) in E. andrei compared to E. fetida. It can be hypothesized that E. andrei colonizing compost as a new habitat acquired an evolutionary selection advantage resulting in a higher expression of antimicrobial proteins.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus