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Long-term phenological shifts in raptor migration and climate.

Jaffré M, Beaugrand G, Goberville E, Jiguet F, Kjellén N, Troost G, Dubois PJ, Leprêtre A, Luczak C - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Climate change is having a discernible effect on many biological and ecological processes.We found that when the temperatures increased, birds delayed their mean passage date of autumn migration.Such delay, in addition to an earlier spring migration, suggests that a significant warming may induce an extension of the breeding-area residence time of migratory raptors, which may eventually lead to residency.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire d'Océanologie et de Géosciences UMR LOG CNRS 8187, Université Lille 1, Station Marine de Wimereux, Wimereux, France.

ABSTRACT
Climate change is having a discernible effect on many biological and ecological processes. Among observed changes, modifications in bird phenology have been widely documented. However, most studies have interpreted phenological shifts as gradual biological adjustments in response to the alteration of the thermal regime. Here we analysed a long-term dataset (1980-2010) of short-distance migratory raptors in five European regions. We revealed that the responses of these birds to climate-induced changes in autumn temperatures are abrupt and synchronous at a continental scale. We found that when the temperatures increased, birds delayed their mean passage date of autumn migration. Such delay, in addition to an earlier spring migration, suggests that a significant warming may induce an extension of the breeding-area residence time of migratory raptors, which may eventually lead to residency.

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Schematic diagram of the length of the Breeding Area Residence Time (BART) depending on the initial condition and both hypotheses for changes in migration dates.A, Initial state: migration dates are unchanged; the length of the BART is stable. B, Hypothesis 1: both spring and autumn migration dates occur earlier; the length of the BART is stable but lagged. C, Hypothesis 2: spring migration date is earlier, autumn migration date is later; the length of the BART is extended.
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pone-0079112-g001: Schematic diagram of the length of the Breeding Area Residence Time (BART) depending on the initial condition and both hypotheses for changes in migration dates.A, Initial state: migration dates are unchanged; the length of the BART is stable. B, Hypothesis 1: both spring and autumn migration dates occur earlier; the length of the BART is stable but lagged. C, Hypothesis 2: spring migration date is earlier, autumn migration date is later; the length of the BART is extended.

Mentions: Current global climate change has already caused consistent patterns of change in the phenology and biogeography of numerous species, ranging from plants to vertebrates [1,2]. Such changes include pronounced shifts in the timing of the annual cycle events of birds, in particular breeding and migration [3-6]. Most studies have focused on spring migration, showing that migration occurs earlier [4] when temperatures increases [7]. The autumn migration has been less investigated and the responses in the timing of birds seem to be more complex, depending on the ecology and life history traits of the species [8,9]. The fluctuations in the timing of bird migration in response to climate change differs however between long-distance and short-distance migrants [3]. The later birds, spending the winter close to their breeding area, can alter the timing of their migration in response to climate change more rapidly than long-distance migrants [3], which overwinter in the tropics and whose migration is under endogenous control [10]. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the variability in post-breeding migration. A first hypothesis assumes an unchanged Breeding-Area Residence Time (so-called BART, Figure 1A) [11] and stipulates that the timing of post-breeding migration takes place earlier [9,12] as a consequence of a premature spring arrival (Figure 1B). A second hypothesis propounds that a more climatically suitable autumn may lead to a later departure because adverse environmental conditions are delayed (Figure 1C) [13,14].


Long-term phenological shifts in raptor migration and climate.

Jaffré M, Beaugrand G, Goberville E, Jiguet F, Kjellén N, Troost G, Dubois PJ, Leprêtre A, Luczak C - PLoS ONE (2013)

Schematic diagram of the length of the Breeding Area Residence Time (BART) depending on the initial condition and both hypotheses for changes in migration dates.A, Initial state: migration dates are unchanged; the length of the BART is stable. B, Hypothesis 1: both spring and autumn migration dates occur earlier; the length of the BART is stable but lagged. C, Hypothesis 2: spring migration date is earlier, autumn migration date is later; the length of the BART is extended.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3815123&req=5

pone-0079112-g001: Schematic diagram of the length of the Breeding Area Residence Time (BART) depending on the initial condition and both hypotheses for changes in migration dates.A, Initial state: migration dates are unchanged; the length of the BART is stable. B, Hypothesis 1: both spring and autumn migration dates occur earlier; the length of the BART is stable but lagged. C, Hypothesis 2: spring migration date is earlier, autumn migration date is later; the length of the BART is extended.
Mentions: Current global climate change has already caused consistent patterns of change in the phenology and biogeography of numerous species, ranging from plants to vertebrates [1,2]. Such changes include pronounced shifts in the timing of the annual cycle events of birds, in particular breeding and migration [3-6]. Most studies have focused on spring migration, showing that migration occurs earlier [4] when temperatures increases [7]. The autumn migration has been less investigated and the responses in the timing of birds seem to be more complex, depending on the ecology and life history traits of the species [8,9]. The fluctuations in the timing of bird migration in response to climate change differs however between long-distance and short-distance migrants [3]. The later birds, spending the winter close to their breeding area, can alter the timing of their migration in response to climate change more rapidly than long-distance migrants [3], which overwinter in the tropics and whose migration is under endogenous control [10]. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the variability in post-breeding migration. A first hypothesis assumes an unchanged Breeding-Area Residence Time (so-called BART, Figure 1A) [11] and stipulates that the timing of post-breeding migration takes place earlier [9,12] as a consequence of a premature spring arrival (Figure 1B). A second hypothesis propounds that a more climatically suitable autumn may lead to a later departure because adverse environmental conditions are delayed (Figure 1C) [13,14].

Bottom Line: Climate change is having a discernible effect on many biological and ecological processes.We found that when the temperatures increased, birds delayed their mean passage date of autumn migration.Such delay, in addition to an earlier spring migration, suggests that a significant warming may induce an extension of the breeding-area residence time of migratory raptors, which may eventually lead to residency.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire d'Océanologie et de Géosciences UMR LOG CNRS 8187, Université Lille 1, Station Marine de Wimereux, Wimereux, France.

ABSTRACT
Climate change is having a discernible effect on many biological and ecological processes. Among observed changes, modifications in bird phenology have been widely documented. However, most studies have interpreted phenological shifts as gradual biological adjustments in response to the alteration of the thermal regime. Here we analysed a long-term dataset (1980-2010) of short-distance migratory raptors in five European regions. We revealed that the responses of these birds to climate-induced changes in autumn temperatures are abrupt and synchronous at a continental scale. We found that when the temperatures increased, birds delayed their mean passage date of autumn migration. Such delay, in addition to an earlier spring migration, suggests that a significant warming may induce an extension of the breeding-area residence time of migratory raptors, which may eventually lead to residency.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus