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Burden of Giardia duodenalis infection and its adverse effects on growth of schoolchildren in rural Malaysia.

Al-Mekhlafi HM, Al-Maktari MT, Jani R, Ahmed A, Anuar TS, Moktar N, Mahdy MA, Lim YA, Mahmud R, Surin J - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2013)

Bottom Line: Nutritional status of children was assessed and the results showed that the mean weight and height were 23.9 kg (95% CI = 23.3, 24.5) and 126.6 cm (95% CI = 125.6, 127.5), respectively.Overall, the prevalence of severe underweight, stunting and wasting were 28.3%, 23.8% and 21.0%, respectively.It was found that Giardia infection has a significant association with the weight of children but not with height.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ; Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Sana'a University, Sana'a, Yemen.

ABSTRACT

Background: Giardia duodenalis infection and malnutrition are still considered as public health problems in many developing countries especially among children in rural communities. This study was carried out among Aboriginal (Orang Asli) primary schoolchildren in rural peninsular Malaysia to investigate the burden and the effects of Giardia infection on growth (weight and height) of the children.

Methods/findings: Weight and height of 374 children aged 7-12 years were assessed before and after treatment of Giardia infection. The children were screened for Giardia parasite using trichrome staining technique. Demographic and socioeconomic data were collected via face-to-face interviews using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, 22.2% (83/374) of the children were found to be infected with Giardia. Nutritional status of children was assessed and the results showed that the mean weight and height were 23.9 kg (95% CI = 23.3, 24.5) and 126.6 cm (95% CI = 125.6, 127.5), respectively. Overall, the prevalence of severe underweight, stunting and wasting were 28.3%, 23.8% and 21.0%, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses showed sex, Giardia infection and household monthly income as the significant determinants of weight while sex and level of mother's education were the significant determinants of height. Weight and height were assessed at 3 and 6 months after treatment of Giardia infection. It was found that Giardia infection has a significant association with the weight of children but not with height.

Conclusions/significance: This study reveals high prevalence of Giardia infection and malnutrition among Aboriginal children in rural Malaysia and clearly highlights an urgent need to identify integrated measures to control these health problems in the rural communities. Essentially, proper attention should be given to the control of Giardia infection in Aboriginal communities as this constitutes one of the strategies to improve the nutritional status of Aboriginal children.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

A geographic map showing Pahang state and the location of the selected schools and villages in Lipis and Raub districts.
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pntd-0002516-g001: A geographic map showing Pahang state and the location of the selected schools and villages in Lipis and Raub districts.

Mentions: A longitudinal study with before and after treatment follow up assessments was carried out in primary schools for Aboriginal children in Raub and Lipis districts, Pahang state, Malaysia. Data collection was carried out between March and October 2010. Sekolah Kebangsaan Satak (National School of Satak) in Raub and Sekolah Kebangsaan Betau (National School of Betau) in Lipis were selected for this study (Figure 1). The study area in Raub district, located about 140 km northeast of Kuala Lumpur, has five main Aboriginal settlements namely; Satak, Rensong, Ruai Hulu, Ruai Hilir, and Kelang. The study area in Lipis district, located about 200 km northeast of Kuala Lumpur, has 18 villages. Adequate sanitation facilities is the main predictor for acquiring intestinal parasitic infections, especially Giardia and soil-transmitted helminthes, in the Aboriginal and rural communities. The food supply in these communities is constantly poor in energy and periodically low in protein [22], [23]. Most of these impoverished people are subsistence farmers, completely dependent on their environment for survival.


Burden of Giardia duodenalis infection and its adverse effects on growth of schoolchildren in rural Malaysia.

Al-Mekhlafi HM, Al-Maktari MT, Jani R, Ahmed A, Anuar TS, Moktar N, Mahdy MA, Lim YA, Mahmud R, Surin J - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2013)

A geographic map showing Pahang state and the location of the selected schools and villages in Lipis and Raub districts.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3814875&req=5

pntd-0002516-g001: A geographic map showing Pahang state and the location of the selected schools and villages in Lipis and Raub districts.
Mentions: A longitudinal study with before and after treatment follow up assessments was carried out in primary schools for Aboriginal children in Raub and Lipis districts, Pahang state, Malaysia. Data collection was carried out between March and October 2010. Sekolah Kebangsaan Satak (National School of Satak) in Raub and Sekolah Kebangsaan Betau (National School of Betau) in Lipis were selected for this study (Figure 1). The study area in Raub district, located about 140 km northeast of Kuala Lumpur, has five main Aboriginal settlements namely; Satak, Rensong, Ruai Hulu, Ruai Hilir, and Kelang. The study area in Lipis district, located about 200 km northeast of Kuala Lumpur, has 18 villages. Adequate sanitation facilities is the main predictor for acquiring intestinal parasitic infections, especially Giardia and soil-transmitted helminthes, in the Aboriginal and rural communities. The food supply in these communities is constantly poor in energy and periodically low in protein [22], [23]. Most of these impoverished people are subsistence farmers, completely dependent on their environment for survival.

Bottom Line: Nutritional status of children was assessed and the results showed that the mean weight and height were 23.9 kg (95% CI = 23.3, 24.5) and 126.6 cm (95% CI = 125.6, 127.5), respectively.Overall, the prevalence of severe underweight, stunting and wasting were 28.3%, 23.8% and 21.0%, respectively.It was found that Giardia infection has a significant association with the weight of children but not with height.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ; Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Sana'a University, Sana'a, Yemen.

ABSTRACT

Background: Giardia duodenalis infection and malnutrition are still considered as public health problems in many developing countries especially among children in rural communities. This study was carried out among Aboriginal (Orang Asli) primary schoolchildren in rural peninsular Malaysia to investigate the burden and the effects of Giardia infection on growth (weight and height) of the children.

Methods/findings: Weight and height of 374 children aged 7-12 years were assessed before and after treatment of Giardia infection. The children were screened for Giardia parasite using trichrome staining technique. Demographic and socioeconomic data were collected via face-to-face interviews using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, 22.2% (83/374) of the children were found to be infected with Giardia. Nutritional status of children was assessed and the results showed that the mean weight and height were 23.9 kg (95% CI = 23.3, 24.5) and 126.6 cm (95% CI = 125.6, 127.5), respectively. Overall, the prevalence of severe underweight, stunting and wasting were 28.3%, 23.8% and 21.0%, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses showed sex, Giardia infection and household monthly income as the significant determinants of weight while sex and level of mother's education were the significant determinants of height. Weight and height were assessed at 3 and 6 months after treatment of Giardia infection. It was found that Giardia infection has a significant association with the weight of children but not with height.

Conclusions/significance: This study reveals high prevalence of Giardia infection and malnutrition among Aboriginal children in rural Malaysia and clearly highlights an urgent need to identify integrated measures to control these health problems in the rural communities. Essentially, proper attention should be given to the control of Giardia infection in Aboriginal communities as this constitutes one of the strategies to improve the nutritional status of Aboriginal children.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus