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CD8 and CD4 T cells in west nile virus immunity and pathogenesis.

Netland J, Bevan MJ - Viruses (2013)

Bottom Line: They have been extensively studied in a variety of model systems and the mechanisms by which they function are well described.However, the responses by these cell types vary widely from pathogen to pathogen.In this review, we will discuss the role of CD8 and CD4 T cells in the immune response to West Nile virus infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. mbevan@uw.edu.

ABSTRACT
CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes are adaptive immune cells that play a key role in the immune response to pathogens. They have been extensively studied in a variety of model systems and the mechanisms by which they function are well described. However, the responses by these cell types vary widely from pathogen to pathogen. In this review, we will discuss the role of CD8 and CD4 T cells in the immune response to West Nile virus infection.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

C57Bl/6 mice were infected subcutaneously with 1000 PFU WNV-TX. At the indicated time points post-infection spleen and brain were harvested and cells were isolated. T cells were stained with anti-CD8 antibody and MHC-I tetramer containing the immunodominant epitope within the NS4b protein (SSVWNATTA) and analyzed by flow cytometry. (A) Representative dot plots gated on CD8+ cells; (B) Total number of NS4b/Db+ cells from two experiments combined (n = 5–6).
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viruses-05-02573-f001: C57Bl/6 mice were infected subcutaneously with 1000 PFU WNV-TX. At the indicated time points post-infection spleen and brain were harvested and cells were isolated. T cells were stained with anti-CD8 antibody and MHC-I tetramer containing the immunodominant epitope within the NS4b protein (SSVWNATTA) and analyzed by flow cytometry. (A) Representative dot plots gated on CD8+ cells; (B) Total number of NS4b/Db+ cells from two experiments combined (n = 5–6).

Mentions: Recently efforts have been made to determine the antigen specificity of CD8 T cells responding to WNV in both mice and humans. In mouse studies, one group used “peptide overload” and overlapping peptide pools to map one immunodominant and numerous subdominant epitopes [8]. They observed that the hierarchy of these responses was maintained in both effector and memory cells. By generating CTL clones specific to these epitopes and transferring them individually into Rag−/− mice they demonstrated that T cells specific for the immunodominant and one subdominant epitope were able to protect the majority of mice from lethal disease while another subdominant epitope protected to a lesser extent. Another group employed a computational prediction approach to identify two immunodominant epitopes, both of which were also identified in the study above. They also generated CTL clones specific to these epitopes, which were able to lyse infected target cells in vitro and decrease mortality in vivo. CD8 T cells from C57BL/6 mice specific to the immunodominant NS4b epitope have been shown to be generated after infection in wild-type mice and can form stable memory populations [38] in both the spleen and brain (Figure 1).


CD8 and CD4 T cells in west nile virus immunity and pathogenesis.

Netland J, Bevan MJ - Viruses (2013)

C57Bl/6 mice were infected subcutaneously with 1000 PFU WNV-TX. At the indicated time points post-infection spleen and brain were harvested and cells were isolated. T cells were stained with anti-CD8 antibody and MHC-I tetramer containing the immunodominant epitope within the NS4b protein (SSVWNATTA) and analyzed by flow cytometry. (A) Representative dot plots gated on CD8+ cells; (B) Total number of NS4b/Db+ cells from two experiments combined (n = 5–6).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3814605&req=5

viruses-05-02573-f001: C57Bl/6 mice were infected subcutaneously with 1000 PFU WNV-TX. At the indicated time points post-infection spleen and brain were harvested and cells were isolated. T cells were stained with anti-CD8 antibody and MHC-I tetramer containing the immunodominant epitope within the NS4b protein (SSVWNATTA) and analyzed by flow cytometry. (A) Representative dot plots gated on CD8+ cells; (B) Total number of NS4b/Db+ cells from two experiments combined (n = 5–6).
Mentions: Recently efforts have been made to determine the antigen specificity of CD8 T cells responding to WNV in both mice and humans. In mouse studies, one group used “peptide overload” and overlapping peptide pools to map one immunodominant and numerous subdominant epitopes [8]. They observed that the hierarchy of these responses was maintained in both effector and memory cells. By generating CTL clones specific to these epitopes and transferring them individually into Rag−/− mice they demonstrated that T cells specific for the immunodominant and one subdominant epitope were able to protect the majority of mice from lethal disease while another subdominant epitope protected to a lesser extent. Another group employed a computational prediction approach to identify two immunodominant epitopes, both of which were also identified in the study above. They also generated CTL clones specific to these epitopes, which were able to lyse infected target cells in vitro and decrease mortality in vivo. CD8 T cells from C57BL/6 mice specific to the immunodominant NS4b epitope have been shown to be generated after infection in wild-type mice and can form stable memory populations [38] in both the spleen and brain (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: They have been extensively studied in a variety of model systems and the mechanisms by which they function are well described.However, the responses by these cell types vary widely from pathogen to pathogen.In this review, we will discuss the role of CD8 and CD4 T cells in the immune response to West Nile virus infection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. mbevan@uw.edu.

ABSTRACT
CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes are adaptive immune cells that play a key role in the immune response to pathogens. They have been extensively studied in a variety of model systems and the mechanisms by which they function are well described. However, the responses by these cell types vary widely from pathogen to pathogen. In this review, we will discuss the role of CD8 and CD4 T cells in the immune response to West Nile virus infection.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus