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Evolution of foamy viruses: the most ancient of all retroviruses.

Rethwilm A, Bodem J - Viruses (2013)

Bottom Line: The analysis of the spectrum of animal species infected by exogenous FVs or harboring endogenous FV elements in their genome is pivotal.The issues of the extent of FV viremia and of the nature of the virion genome (RNA vs.DNA) also need to be experimentally addressed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universität Würzburg, Institut für Virologie und Immunbiologie, Versbacher Str.7, Würzburg 97078, Germany. virologie@vim.uni-wuerzburg.de.

ABSTRACT
Recent evidence indicates that foamy viruses (FVs) are the oldest retroviruses (RVs) that we know and coevolved with their hosts for several hundred million years. This coevolution may have contributed to the non-pathogenicity of FVs, an important factor in development of foamy viral vectors in gene therapy. However, various questions on the molecular evolution of FVs remain still unanswered. The analysis of the spectrum of animal species infected by exogenous FVs or harboring endogenous FV elements in their genome is pivotal. Furthermore, animal studies might reveal important issues, such as the identification of the FV in vivo target cells, which than require a detailed characterization, to resolve the molecular basis of the accuracy with which FVs copy their genome. The issues of the extent of FV viremia and of the nature of the virion genome (RNA vs. DNA) also need to be experimentally addressed.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

A 425-nucleotide fragment from the conserved region of the integrase domain of pol was used to establish the phylogenetic tree demonstrating the phylogenetic relations of SFVcpz, PFV and SFVgor. The position of the proviral PFV (red) sequence and other proviral plasmids (blue) are indicated. SIVmac (magenta) served as an outlier. Pan paniscus is Bonobo.
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viruses-05-02349-f005: A 425-nucleotide fragment from the conserved region of the integrase domain of pol was used to establish the phylogenetic tree demonstrating the phylogenetic relations of SFVcpz, PFV and SFVgor. The position of the proviral PFV (red) sequence and other proviral plasmids (blue) are indicated. SIVmac (magenta) served as an outlier. Pan paniscus is Bonobo.

Mentions: However, a more detailed evaluation, including DNA sequences, which became only available recently [48,50], reveals that the SFVs from chimpanzees present a wider sequence spectrum than the SFVs from gorillas (Figure 5). This finding represents only a very indirect support for the phylogeographic origin of FV sequences, because the actual geographic origin of the gorilla whose SFV sequence was reported first [48,50] is dubious. All other SFVgor sequences [48] were derived from animals stemming from a more limited area compared to the FVs derived from chimpanzees. These data are best compatible with the assumption of a strain-specific transmission pattern according to mother-to-child transmission and social groups [30]. In addition, they reflect behavioral differences between chimpanzees and gorillas, e.g., a more aggressive behavior of the former. Surely, more sequencing data from great ape FVs should reveal a better evolutionary relationship of FVs. However, PFV to SFV being almost identical in P.t. schweinfurthii points to these chimpanzee subspecies as a potential transmitter of this virus.


Evolution of foamy viruses: the most ancient of all retroviruses.

Rethwilm A, Bodem J - Viruses (2013)

A 425-nucleotide fragment from the conserved region of the integrase domain of pol was used to establish the phylogenetic tree demonstrating the phylogenetic relations of SFVcpz, PFV and SFVgor. The position of the proviral PFV (red) sequence and other proviral plasmids (blue) are indicated. SIVmac (magenta) served as an outlier. Pan paniscus is Bonobo.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3814592&req=5

viruses-05-02349-f005: A 425-nucleotide fragment from the conserved region of the integrase domain of pol was used to establish the phylogenetic tree demonstrating the phylogenetic relations of SFVcpz, PFV and SFVgor. The position of the proviral PFV (red) sequence and other proviral plasmids (blue) are indicated. SIVmac (magenta) served as an outlier. Pan paniscus is Bonobo.
Mentions: However, a more detailed evaluation, including DNA sequences, which became only available recently [48,50], reveals that the SFVs from chimpanzees present a wider sequence spectrum than the SFVs from gorillas (Figure 5). This finding represents only a very indirect support for the phylogeographic origin of FV sequences, because the actual geographic origin of the gorilla whose SFV sequence was reported first [48,50] is dubious. All other SFVgor sequences [48] were derived from animals stemming from a more limited area compared to the FVs derived from chimpanzees. These data are best compatible with the assumption of a strain-specific transmission pattern according to mother-to-child transmission and social groups [30]. In addition, they reflect behavioral differences between chimpanzees and gorillas, e.g., a more aggressive behavior of the former. Surely, more sequencing data from great ape FVs should reveal a better evolutionary relationship of FVs. However, PFV to SFV being almost identical in P.t. schweinfurthii points to these chimpanzee subspecies as a potential transmitter of this virus.

Bottom Line: The analysis of the spectrum of animal species infected by exogenous FVs or harboring endogenous FV elements in their genome is pivotal.The issues of the extent of FV viremia and of the nature of the virion genome (RNA vs.DNA) also need to be experimentally addressed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universität Würzburg, Institut für Virologie und Immunbiologie, Versbacher Str.7, Würzburg 97078, Germany. virologie@vim.uni-wuerzburg.de.

ABSTRACT
Recent evidence indicates that foamy viruses (FVs) are the oldest retroviruses (RVs) that we know and coevolved with their hosts for several hundred million years. This coevolution may have contributed to the non-pathogenicity of FVs, an important factor in development of foamy viral vectors in gene therapy. However, various questions on the molecular evolution of FVs remain still unanswered. The analysis of the spectrum of animal species infected by exogenous FVs or harboring endogenous FV elements in their genome is pivotal. Furthermore, animal studies might reveal important issues, such as the identification of the FV in vivo target cells, which than require a detailed characterization, to resolve the molecular basis of the accuracy with which FVs copy their genome. The issues of the extent of FV viremia and of the nature of the virion genome (RNA vs. DNA) also need to be experimentally addressed.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus