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Evolution of foamy viruses: the most ancient of all retroviruses.

Rethwilm A, Bodem J - Viruses (2013)

Bottom Line: The analysis of the spectrum of animal species infected by exogenous FVs or harboring endogenous FV elements in their genome is pivotal.The issues of the extent of FV viremia and of the nature of the virion genome (RNA vs.DNA) also need to be experimentally addressed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universität Würzburg, Institut für Virologie und Immunbiologie, Versbacher Str.7, Würzburg 97078, Germany. virologie@vim.uni-wuerzburg.de.

ABSTRACT
Recent evidence indicates that foamy viruses (FVs) are the oldest retroviruses (RVs) that we know and coevolved with their hosts for several hundred million years. This coevolution may have contributed to the non-pathogenicity of FVs, an important factor in development of foamy viral vectors in gene therapy. However, various questions on the molecular evolution of FVs remain still unanswered. The analysis of the spectrum of animal species infected by exogenous FVs or harboring endogenous FV elements in their genome is pivotal. Furthermore, animal studies might reveal important issues, such as the identification of the FV in vivo target cells, which than require a detailed characterization, to resolve the molecular basis of the accuracy with which FVs copy their genome. The issues of the extent of FV viremia and of the nature of the virion genome (RNA vs. DNA) also need to be experimentally addressed.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogeny of current endogenous and exogenous FV pol amino acid sequences (from the active center-specifying integrase sequences and comprising 142 codons). A neighbor-joining tree was calculated by using the Maximum Composite Likelihood method with a bootstrap test of 10,000 replicates. BFV, bovine FV (NP_044929.1); EFV equine FV (NP_054716.1); PFV, prototypic FV (in red) (Y07725.1); SFVcpz, SFV from chimpanzee (CCP47057); SFVgor, SFV from gorilla (AY195688.1); SFVora, SFV from orangutan (CAD67562); SFVagm, African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) FV (YP_001956722.2); SFVcha, SFV from Chlorocebus aethiops (CAM34599); SFVcep, SFV from Cercopithecus pygerythrus (AAV92627); SFVman, SFV from mandrill (ADO65890.1); SFVpap, SFV from Papio (CAM34655); SFVmcy (previously SFVmac) from Macaca mulatta, SFV from Macaca cyclopis (CAA41394.1); SFVtup, SFV from Tupaia [155] (AGN49359); SFVspm, SFV from spider monkey (ABV59399.1); SFVmar, SFV from marmosets (ADE06000.1); SFVsqu, SFV from squirrel monkeys (ADE05995.1); FFV, feline FV (NP_056914); Puma, FV from Puma concolor (AGC11913); RaFV-1, FV from the bat Rhinolophus affinis (AFK85015); SloEFV, endogenous FV from sloths (Katzourakis et al., 2009); CoeEFV, endogenous FV in the coelacanth (Latimeria) genome (JX006241.1); platyfish EFV, endogenous FV from platyfish (M. Schartl, personal communication); zebrafish EFV, zebrafish (M. Schartl, personal communication); and Cod EFV, codfish (M. Schartl, personal communication) genomes; integrase encoding sequences of the macaque simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac in magenta) (AAC57420.1) served as the outlier; the endogenous FV sequence from aye-aye (PSFVaye) [156] was not incorporated, because integrase sequences are not available.
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viruses-05-02349-f004: Phylogeny of current endogenous and exogenous FV pol amino acid sequences (from the active center-specifying integrase sequences and comprising 142 codons). A neighbor-joining tree was calculated by using the Maximum Composite Likelihood method with a bootstrap test of 10,000 replicates. BFV, bovine FV (NP_044929.1); EFV equine FV (NP_054716.1); PFV, prototypic FV (in red) (Y07725.1); SFVcpz, SFV from chimpanzee (CCP47057); SFVgor, SFV from gorilla (AY195688.1); SFVora, SFV from orangutan (CAD67562); SFVagm, African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) FV (YP_001956722.2); SFVcha, SFV from Chlorocebus aethiops (CAM34599); SFVcep, SFV from Cercopithecus pygerythrus (AAV92627); SFVman, SFV from mandrill (ADO65890.1); SFVpap, SFV from Papio (CAM34655); SFVmcy (previously SFVmac) from Macaca mulatta, SFV from Macaca cyclopis (CAA41394.1); SFVtup, SFV from Tupaia [155] (AGN49359); SFVspm, SFV from spider monkey (ABV59399.1); SFVmar, SFV from marmosets (ADE06000.1); SFVsqu, SFV from squirrel monkeys (ADE05995.1); FFV, feline FV (NP_056914); Puma, FV from Puma concolor (AGC11913); RaFV-1, FV from the bat Rhinolophus affinis (AFK85015); SloEFV, endogenous FV from sloths (Katzourakis et al., 2009); CoeEFV, endogenous FV in the coelacanth (Latimeria) genome (JX006241.1); platyfish EFV, endogenous FV from platyfish (M. Schartl, personal communication); zebrafish EFV, zebrafish (M. Schartl, personal communication); and Cod EFV, codfish (M. Schartl, personal communication) genomes; integrase encoding sequences of the macaque simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac in magenta) (AAC57420.1) served as the outlier; the endogenous FV sequence from aye-aye (PSFVaye) [156] was not incorporated, because integrase sequences are not available.

Mentions: Early reports presented serological evidence of a human FV [147,148]. However, these studies could not be confirmed upon further investigations [149,150]. Furthermore, when an FV from chimpanzees was molecularly cloned and sequenced, it was suggested that the PFV isolate, which was obtained in 1970 from a Kenyan patient [151], might actually represent an ape virus [152] (Figure 4).


Evolution of foamy viruses: the most ancient of all retroviruses.

Rethwilm A, Bodem J - Viruses (2013)

Phylogeny of current endogenous and exogenous FV pol amino acid sequences (from the active center-specifying integrase sequences and comprising 142 codons). A neighbor-joining tree was calculated by using the Maximum Composite Likelihood method with a bootstrap test of 10,000 replicates. BFV, bovine FV (NP_044929.1); EFV equine FV (NP_054716.1); PFV, prototypic FV (in red) (Y07725.1); SFVcpz, SFV from chimpanzee (CCP47057); SFVgor, SFV from gorilla (AY195688.1); SFVora, SFV from orangutan (CAD67562); SFVagm, African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) FV (YP_001956722.2); SFVcha, SFV from Chlorocebus aethiops (CAM34599); SFVcep, SFV from Cercopithecus pygerythrus (AAV92627); SFVman, SFV from mandrill (ADO65890.1); SFVpap, SFV from Papio (CAM34655); SFVmcy (previously SFVmac) from Macaca mulatta, SFV from Macaca cyclopis (CAA41394.1); SFVtup, SFV from Tupaia [155] (AGN49359); SFVspm, SFV from spider monkey (ABV59399.1); SFVmar, SFV from marmosets (ADE06000.1); SFVsqu, SFV from squirrel monkeys (ADE05995.1); FFV, feline FV (NP_056914); Puma, FV from Puma concolor (AGC11913); RaFV-1, FV from the bat Rhinolophus affinis (AFK85015); SloEFV, endogenous FV from sloths (Katzourakis et al., 2009); CoeEFV, endogenous FV in the coelacanth (Latimeria) genome (JX006241.1); platyfish EFV, endogenous FV from platyfish (M. Schartl, personal communication); zebrafish EFV, zebrafish (M. Schartl, personal communication); and Cod EFV, codfish (M. Schartl, personal communication) genomes; integrase encoding sequences of the macaque simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac in magenta) (AAC57420.1) served as the outlier; the endogenous FV sequence from aye-aye (PSFVaye) [156] was not incorporated, because integrase sequences are not available.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3814592&req=5

viruses-05-02349-f004: Phylogeny of current endogenous and exogenous FV pol amino acid sequences (from the active center-specifying integrase sequences and comprising 142 codons). A neighbor-joining tree was calculated by using the Maximum Composite Likelihood method with a bootstrap test of 10,000 replicates. BFV, bovine FV (NP_044929.1); EFV equine FV (NP_054716.1); PFV, prototypic FV (in red) (Y07725.1); SFVcpz, SFV from chimpanzee (CCP47057); SFVgor, SFV from gorilla (AY195688.1); SFVora, SFV from orangutan (CAD67562); SFVagm, African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) FV (YP_001956722.2); SFVcha, SFV from Chlorocebus aethiops (CAM34599); SFVcep, SFV from Cercopithecus pygerythrus (AAV92627); SFVman, SFV from mandrill (ADO65890.1); SFVpap, SFV from Papio (CAM34655); SFVmcy (previously SFVmac) from Macaca mulatta, SFV from Macaca cyclopis (CAA41394.1); SFVtup, SFV from Tupaia [155] (AGN49359); SFVspm, SFV from spider monkey (ABV59399.1); SFVmar, SFV from marmosets (ADE06000.1); SFVsqu, SFV from squirrel monkeys (ADE05995.1); FFV, feline FV (NP_056914); Puma, FV from Puma concolor (AGC11913); RaFV-1, FV from the bat Rhinolophus affinis (AFK85015); SloEFV, endogenous FV from sloths (Katzourakis et al., 2009); CoeEFV, endogenous FV in the coelacanth (Latimeria) genome (JX006241.1); platyfish EFV, endogenous FV from platyfish (M. Schartl, personal communication); zebrafish EFV, zebrafish (M. Schartl, personal communication); and Cod EFV, codfish (M. Schartl, personal communication) genomes; integrase encoding sequences of the macaque simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac in magenta) (AAC57420.1) served as the outlier; the endogenous FV sequence from aye-aye (PSFVaye) [156] was not incorporated, because integrase sequences are not available.
Mentions: Early reports presented serological evidence of a human FV [147,148]. However, these studies could not be confirmed upon further investigations [149,150]. Furthermore, when an FV from chimpanzees was molecularly cloned and sequenced, it was suggested that the PFV isolate, which was obtained in 1970 from a Kenyan patient [151], might actually represent an ape virus [152] (Figure 4).

Bottom Line: The analysis of the spectrum of animal species infected by exogenous FVs or harboring endogenous FV elements in their genome is pivotal.The issues of the extent of FV viremia and of the nature of the virion genome (RNA vs.DNA) also need to be experimentally addressed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Universität Würzburg, Institut für Virologie und Immunbiologie, Versbacher Str.7, Würzburg 97078, Germany. virologie@vim.uni-wuerzburg.de.

ABSTRACT
Recent evidence indicates that foamy viruses (FVs) are the oldest retroviruses (RVs) that we know and coevolved with their hosts for several hundred million years. This coevolution may have contributed to the non-pathogenicity of FVs, an important factor in development of foamy viral vectors in gene therapy. However, various questions on the molecular evolution of FVs remain still unanswered. The analysis of the spectrum of animal species infected by exogenous FVs or harboring endogenous FV elements in their genome is pivotal. Furthermore, animal studies might reveal important issues, such as the identification of the FV in vivo target cells, which than require a detailed characterization, to resolve the molecular basis of the accuracy with which FVs copy their genome. The issues of the extent of FV viremia and of the nature of the virion genome (RNA vs. DNA) also need to be experimentally addressed.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus