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Investigating the spatial variations of high prevalences of severe malnutrition among children in Papua New Guinea: results from geoadditive models.

Wand H, Lote N, Semos I, Siba P - BMC Res Notes (2012)

Bottom Line: Papua New Guinea (PNG) is one of the nutritionally vulnerable countries with a high rate of children death without showing a sign of improvement in last two decades.We also described the spatial features of these outcomes at province and district-levels.The impact of geographical locations on the risk factors must be recognized as it affects epidemiology and intervention coverage.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. hwand@kirby.unsw.edu.au

ABSTRACT

Background: Papua New Guinea (PNG) is one of the nutritionally vulnerable countries with a high rate of children death without showing a sign of improvement in last two decades. Current study investigated the prevalences of stunting and wasting among a cohort of children in PNG and described the spatial features of these outcomes at the province and district-levels.

Objective: To determine the prevalences of stunting and wasting among a cohort of children in PNG and to describe the spatial features of these outcomes at the province and district-levels. We also described the spatial features of these outcomes at province and district-levels.

Methods: The health and nutritional status of 683 children aged less than five years was assessed using a cross-sectional multi-stage household survey conducted in the Eastern Highlands and Madang Provinces of PNG during the period of 2003-2004. Growth z-scores such as height-for-age and weight-for-age were generated using World Health Organization classifications.

Results: The prevalences of stunting (height-for-age z-score less than -2.0) were 59% and 49% in the Eastern Highlands and Madang respectively (P = 0.019). The prevalences of wasting (weight-for-height z-score less than -2.0) were 14% and 22% in Eastern Highlands and Madang respectively, (P = 0.039); overall, only 21% of the children had completed all their scheduled vaccines and 95% of the caregivers had less than primary school education. Our statistical maps showed considerable spatial variations (province- and district-levels) with regard to the stunting, wasting and other key factors within a relatively small geographical region.

Conclusions: Current study determined one of the highest prevalence of stunting among children in PNG. The impact of geographical locations on the risk factors must be recognized as it affects epidemiology and intervention coverage.

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a: Child’s age effect on stunting, b: child’s age effect on wasting, c: care giver’s age on stunting, d: care giver’s age wasting.
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Figure 4: a: Child’s age effect on stunting, b: child’s age effect on wasting, c: care giver’s age on stunting, d: care giver’s age wasting.

Mentions: Figures 4a and 4b show the flexible nonparametric modelling of the effect of the child’s age on the estimated prevalences of stunting and wasting respectively. We observed influence of age on the prevalence of stunting would be in the form of inverse U-shape, with the highest prevalence observed among children aged between 20 to 40 months (Figure 3a). This looks quite reasonable as younger children are likely to be breast fed and therefore they would be protective against stunting. Despite a slight upward trend in prevalence after age 40 months, there was no notable association between the prevalence of wasting and the child’s age.


Investigating the spatial variations of high prevalences of severe malnutrition among children in Papua New Guinea: results from geoadditive models.

Wand H, Lote N, Semos I, Siba P - BMC Res Notes (2012)

a: Child’s age effect on stunting, b: child’s age effect on wasting, c: care giver’s age on stunting, d: care giver’s age wasting.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3814590&req=5

Figure 4: a: Child’s age effect on stunting, b: child’s age effect on wasting, c: care giver’s age on stunting, d: care giver’s age wasting.
Mentions: Figures 4a and 4b show the flexible nonparametric modelling of the effect of the child’s age on the estimated prevalences of stunting and wasting respectively. We observed influence of age on the prevalence of stunting would be in the form of inverse U-shape, with the highest prevalence observed among children aged between 20 to 40 months (Figure 3a). This looks quite reasonable as younger children are likely to be breast fed and therefore they would be protective against stunting. Despite a slight upward trend in prevalence after age 40 months, there was no notable association between the prevalence of wasting and the child’s age.

Bottom Line: Papua New Guinea (PNG) is one of the nutritionally vulnerable countries with a high rate of children death without showing a sign of improvement in last two decades.We also described the spatial features of these outcomes at province and district-levels.The impact of geographical locations on the risk factors must be recognized as it affects epidemiology and intervention coverage.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. hwand@kirby.unsw.edu.au

ABSTRACT

Background: Papua New Guinea (PNG) is one of the nutritionally vulnerable countries with a high rate of children death without showing a sign of improvement in last two decades. Current study investigated the prevalences of stunting and wasting among a cohort of children in PNG and described the spatial features of these outcomes at the province and district-levels.

Objective: To determine the prevalences of stunting and wasting among a cohort of children in PNG and to describe the spatial features of these outcomes at the province and district-levels. We also described the spatial features of these outcomes at province and district-levels.

Methods: The health and nutritional status of 683 children aged less than five years was assessed using a cross-sectional multi-stage household survey conducted in the Eastern Highlands and Madang Provinces of PNG during the period of 2003-2004. Growth z-scores such as height-for-age and weight-for-age were generated using World Health Organization classifications.

Results: The prevalences of stunting (height-for-age z-score less than -2.0) were 59% and 49% in the Eastern Highlands and Madang respectively (P = 0.019). The prevalences of wasting (weight-for-height z-score less than -2.0) were 14% and 22% in Eastern Highlands and Madang respectively, (P = 0.039); overall, only 21% of the children had completed all their scheduled vaccines and 95% of the caregivers had less than primary school education. Our statistical maps showed considerable spatial variations (province- and district-levels) with regard to the stunting, wasting and other key factors within a relatively small geographical region.

Conclusions: Current study determined one of the highest prevalence of stunting among children in PNG. The impact of geographical locations on the risk factors must be recognized as it affects epidemiology and intervention coverage.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus