Limits...
Population structure and evidence for both clonality and recombination among Brazilian strains of the subgenus Leishmania (Viannia).

Kuhls K, Cupolillo E, Silva SO, Schweynoch C, Boité MC, Mello MN, Mauricio I, Miles M, Wirth T, Schönian G - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2013)

Bottom Line: The MLMT approach identified an epidemic clone consisting of 13 strains of L. braziliensis from Minas Gerais, but evidence for recombination was obtained for the populations of L. (V.) braziliensis from the Atlantic coast and for L. (V.) guyanensis.Different levels of recombination versus clonality seem to occur within the subgenus L. (Viannia).Though clearly departing from panmixia, sporadic, but long-term sustained recombination might explain the tremendous genetic diversity and limited population structure found for such L. (Viannia) strains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Background/objectives: Parasites of the subgenus Leishmania (Viannia) cause varying clinical symptoms ranging from cutaneous leishmaniases (CL) with single or few lesions, disseminated CL (DL) with multiple lesions to disfiguring forms of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). In this population genetics study, 37 strains of L. (V.) guyanensis, 63 of L. (V.) braziliensis, four of L. (V.) shawi, six of L. (V.) lainsoni, seven of L. (V.) naiffi, one each of L. (V.) utingensis and L. (V.) lindenbergi, and one L. (V.) lainsoni/L. naiffi hybrid from different endemic foci in Brazil were examined for variation at 15 hyper-variable microsatellite markers.

Methodology/principal findings: The multilocus microsatellite profiles obtained for the 120 strains were analysed using both model- and distance-based methods. Significant genetic diversity was observed for all L. (Viannia) strains studied. The two cluster analysis approaches identified two principal genetic groups or populations, one consisting of strains of L. (V.) guyanensis from the Amazon region and the other of strains of L. (V.) braziliensis isolated along the Atlantic coast of Brazil. A third group comprised a heterogeneous assembly of species, including other strains of L. braziliensis isolated from the north of Brazil, which were extremely polymorphic. The latter strains seemed to be more closely related to those of L. (V.) shawi, L. (V.) naiffi, and L. (V.) lainsoni, also isolated in northern Brazilian foci. The MLMT approach identified an epidemic clone consisting of 13 strains of L. braziliensis from Minas Gerais, but evidence for recombination was obtained for the populations of L. (V.) braziliensis from the Atlantic coast and for L. (V.) guyanensis.

Conclusions/significance: Different levels of recombination versus clonality seem to occur within the subgenus L. (Viannia). Though clearly departing from panmixia, sporadic, but long-term sustained recombination might explain the tremendous genetic diversity and limited population structure found for such L. (Viannia) strains.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

NeighborNet network based on the MLMT profiles of 120 Brazilian L. (Viannia) strains.The network was obtained using SplitsTree4 software and calculation of Chord distances for the 15 microsatellite markers used. The assignment of the strains to the sub-populations as inferred by STRUCTURE is indicated.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3814519&req=5

pntd-0002490-g004: NeighborNet network based on the MLMT profiles of 120 Brazilian L. (Viannia) strains.The network was obtained using SplitsTree4 software and calculation of Chord distances for the 15 microsatellite markers used. The assignment of the strains to the sub-populations as inferred by STRUCTURE is indicated.

Mentions: The phylogenetic NeighborNet network (Figure 4) largely confirmed the results described above. It clearly showed the tremendous diversity of the strains assigned to Population 3 and its four sub-populations. However, conflicting splits represented by boxes can be seen between and within the three main populations. The same analysis was carried out for each of the populations separately. The obtained phylogenetic networks confirm most of the sub-structures found previously by Bayesian analysis (Figures S3, S4, S5).


Population structure and evidence for both clonality and recombination among Brazilian strains of the subgenus Leishmania (Viannia).

Kuhls K, Cupolillo E, Silva SO, Schweynoch C, Boité MC, Mello MN, Mauricio I, Miles M, Wirth T, Schönian G - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2013)

NeighborNet network based on the MLMT profiles of 120 Brazilian L. (Viannia) strains.The network was obtained using SplitsTree4 software and calculation of Chord distances for the 15 microsatellite markers used. The assignment of the strains to the sub-populations as inferred by STRUCTURE is indicated.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3814519&req=5

pntd-0002490-g004: NeighborNet network based on the MLMT profiles of 120 Brazilian L. (Viannia) strains.The network was obtained using SplitsTree4 software and calculation of Chord distances for the 15 microsatellite markers used. The assignment of the strains to the sub-populations as inferred by STRUCTURE is indicated.
Mentions: The phylogenetic NeighborNet network (Figure 4) largely confirmed the results described above. It clearly showed the tremendous diversity of the strains assigned to Population 3 and its four sub-populations. However, conflicting splits represented by boxes can be seen between and within the three main populations. The same analysis was carried out for each of the populations separately. The obtained phylogenetic networks confirm most of the sub-structures found previously by Bayesian analysis (Figures S3, S4, S5).

Bottom Line: The MLMT approach identified an epidemic clone consisting of 13 strains of L. braziliensis from Minas Gerais, but evidence for recombination was obtained for the populations of L. (V.) braziliensis from the Atlantic coast and for L. (V.) guyanensis.Different levels of recombination versus clonality seem to occur within the subgenus L. (Viannia).Though clearly departing from panmixia, sporadic, but long-term sustained recombination might explain the tremendous genetic diversity and limited population structure found for such L. (Viannia) strains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Background/objectives: Parasites of the subgenus Leishmania (Viannia) cause varying clinical symptoms ranging from cutaneous leishmaniases (CL) with single or few lesions, disseminated CL (DL) with multiple lesions to disfiguring forms of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). In this population genetics study, 37 strains of L. (V.) guyanensis, 63 of L. (V.) braziliensis, four of L. (V.) shawi, six of L. (V.) lainsoni, seven of L. (V.) naiffi, one each of L. (V.) utingensis and L. (V.) lindenbergi, and one L. (V.) lainsoni/L. naiffi hybrid from different endemic foci in Brazil were examined for variation at 15 hyper-variable microsatellite markers.

Methodology/principal findings: The multilocus microsatellite profiles obtained for the 120 strains were analysed using both model- and distance-based methods. Significant genetic diversity was observed for all L. (Viannia) strains studied. The two cluster analysis approaches identified two principal genetic groups or populations, one consisting of strains of L. (V.) guyanensis from the Amazon region and the other of strains of L. (V.) braziliensis isolated along the Atlantic coast of Brazil. A third group comprised a heterogeneous assembly of species, including other strains of L. braziliensis isolated from the north of Brazil, which were extremely polymorphic. The latter strains seemed to be more closely related to those of L. (V.) shawi, L. (V.) naiffi, and L. (V.) lainsoni, also isolated in northern Brazilian foci. The MLMT approach identified an epidemic clone consisting of 13 strains of L. braziliensis from Minas Gerais, but evidence for recombination was obtained for the populations of L. (V.) braziliensis from the Atlantic coast and for L. (V.) guyanensis.

Conclusions/significance: Different levels of recombination versus clonality seem to occur within the subgenus L. (Viannia). Though clearly departing from panmixia, sporadic, but long-term sustained recombination might explain the tremendous genetic diversity and limited population structure found for such L. (Viannia) strains.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus