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Mosquito vector diversity across habitats in central Thailand endemic for dengue and other arthropod-borne diseases.

Thongsripong P, Green A, Kittayapong P, Kapan D, Wilcox B, Bennett S - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2013)

Bottom Line: Culex sp. (Vishnui subgroup) was the most common taxon found overall and the most frequent in fragmented forest, rice field, rural, and suburban habitats.The distributions of species of medical importance differed significantly across habitat types and were always lowest in the intact, forest habitat.Our results are an important first step for understanding the dynamics of mosquito vector distributions under changing environmental features across landscapes of Thailand.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology, and Pharmacology, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawai'i, United States of America ; Department of Microbiology, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Recent years have seen the greatest ecological disturbances of our times, with global human expansion, species and habitat loss, climate change, and the emergence of new and previously-known infectious diseases. Biodiversity loss affects infectious disease risk by disrupting normal relationships between hosts and pathogens. Mosquito-borne pathogens respond to changing dynamics on multiple transmission levels and appear to increase in disturbed systems, yet current knowledge of mosquito diversity and the relative abundance of vectors as a function of habitat change is limited. We characterize mosquito communities across habitats with differing levels of anthropogenic ecological disturbance in central Thailand. During the 2008 rainy season, adult mosquito collections from 24 sites, representing 6 habitat types ranging from forest to urban, yielded 62,126 intact female mosquitoes (83,325 total mosquitoes) that were assigned to 109 taxa. Female mosquito abundance was highest in rice fields and lowest in forests. Diversity indices and rarefied species richness estimates indicate the mosquito fauna was more diverse in rural and less diverse in rice field habitats, while extrapolated estimates of true richness (Chao1 and ACE) indicated higher diversity in the forest and fragmented forest habitats and lower diversity in the urban. Culex sp. (Vishnui subgroup) was the most common taxon found overall and the most frequent in fragmented forest, rice field, rural, and suburban habitats. The distributions of species of medical importance differed significantly across habitat types and were always lowest in the intact, forest habitat. The relative abundance of key vector species, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, was negatively correlated with diversity, suggesting that direct species interactions and/or habitat-mediated factors differentially affecting invasive disease vectors may be important mechanisms linking biodiversity loss to human health. Our results are an important first step for understanding the dynamics of mosquito vector distributions under changing environmental features across landscapes of Thailand.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Map of study area in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand.Mosquitoes were collected in 24 sites representing six habitat types: Forest (F1 to F4), Fragmented Forest (FFR1 to FFR4), Rice Field (RF1 to RF4), Rural (RU1 to RU4), Suburban (SU1 to SU4), and Urban habitats (UR1 to UR2). Satellite imagery courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey Land Remote Sensing Program (Landsat 8).
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pntd-0002507-g002: Map of study area in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand.Mosquitoes were collected in 24 sites representing six habitat types: Forest (F1 to F4), Fragmented Forest (FFR1 to FFR4), Rice Field (RF1 to RF4), Rural (RU1 to RU4), Suburban (SU1 to SU4), and Urban habitats (UR1 to UR2). Satellite imagery courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey Land Remote Sensing Program (Landsat 8).

Mentions: We studied six habitat types (forest, fragmented forest, rice field, rural, suburban, and urban) along a forest-agro-urban landscape gradient (Figure 1) in Nakhon Nayok province, central Thailand. Nakhon Nayok served as a suitable area for developing the gradient of habitats since the north end of the province is a part of Khao Yai National Park and the Sankambeng Range while the center of the province is a flat river plain formed by the Nakhon Nayok River and includes agricultural activities as well as more densely populated sections. The habitat types were identified along the landscape gradient first by distant imaging (Google Earth, http://www.google.com/earth/index.html) and later by direct observation. Selection criteria included the presence of human settlement, degree of human activity, degree of agricultural activity, and the amount of trash or clutter (Table 1). Within each habitat type, four sites were selected as replicates based on their similarities under these criteria (Table 1, Figure 2).


Mosquito vector diversity across habitats in central Thailand endemic for dengue and other arthropod-borne diseases.

Thongsripong P, Green A, Kittayapong P, Kapan D, Wilcox B, Bennett S - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2013)

Map of study area in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand.Mosquitoes were collected in 24 sites representing six habitat types: Forest (F1 to F4), Fragmented Forest (FFR1 to FFR4), Rice Field (RF1 to RF4), Rural (RU1 to RU4), Suburban (SU1 to SU4), and Urban habitats (UR1 to UR2). Satellite imagery courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey Land Remote Sensing Program (Landsat 8).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3814347&req=5

pntd-0002507-g002: Map of study area in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand.Mosquitoes were collected in 24 sites representing six habitat types: Forest (F1 to F4), Fragmented Forest (FFR1 to FFR4), Rice Field (RF1 to RF4), Rural (RU1 to RU4), Suburban (SU1 to SU4), and Urban habitats (UR1 to UR2). Satellite imagery courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey Land Remote Sensing Program (Landsat 8).
Mentions: We studied six habitat types (forest, fragmented forest, rice field, rural, suburban, and urban) along a forest-agro-urban landscape gradient (Figure 1) in Nakhon Nayok province, central Thailand. Nakhon Nayok served as a suitable area for developing the gradient of habitats since the north end of the province is a part of Khao Yai National Park and the Sankambeng Range while the center of the province is a flat river plain formed by the Nakhon Nayok River and includes agricultural activities as well as more densely populated sections. The habitat types were identified along the landscape gradient first by distant imaging (Google Earth, http://www.google.com/earth/index.html) and later by direct observation. Selection criteria included the presence of human settlement, degree of human activity, degree of agricultural activity, and the amount of trash or clutter (Table 1). Within each habitat type, four sites were selected as replicates based on their similarities under these criteria (Table 1, Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Culex sp. (Vishnui subgroup) was the most common taxon found overall and the most frequent in fragmented forest, rice field, rural, and suburban habitats.The distributions of species of medical importance differed significantly across habitat types and were always lowest in the intact, forest habitat.Our results are an important first step for understanding the dynamics of mosquito vector distributions under changing environmental features across landscapes of Thailand.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology, and Pharmacology, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawai'i, United States of America ; Department of Microbiology, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Recent years have seen the greatest ecological disturbances of our times, with global human expansion, species and habitat loss, climate change, and the emergence of new and previously-known infectious diseases. Biodiversity loss affects infectious disease risk by disrupting normal relationships between hosts and pathogens. Mosquito-borne pathogens respond to changing dynamics on multiple transmission levels and appear to increase in disturbed systems, yet current knowledge of mosquito diversity and the relative abundance of vectors as a function of habitat change is limited. We characterize mosquito communities across habitats with differing levels of anthropogenic ecological disturbance in central Thailand. During the 2008 rainy season, adult mosquito collections from 24 sites, representing 6 habitat types ranging from forest to urban, yielded 62,126 intact female mosquitoes (83,325 total mosquitoes) that were assigned to 109 taxa. Female mosquito abundance was highest in rice fields and lowest in forests. Diversity indices and rarefied species richness estimates indicate the mosquito fauna was more diverse in rural and less diverse in rice field habitats, while extrapolated estimates of true richness (Chao1 and ACE) indicated higher diversity in the forest and fragmented forest habitats and lower diversity in the urban. Culex sp. (Vishnui subgroup) was the most common taxon found overall and the most frequent in fragmented forest, rice field, rural, and suburban habitats. The distributions of species of medical importance differed significantly across habitat types and were always lowest in the intact, forest habitat. The relative abundance of key vector species, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, was negatively correlated with diversity, suggesting that direct species interactions and/or habitat-mediated factors differentially affecting invasive disease vectors may be important mechanisms linking biodiversity loss to human health. Our results are an important first step for understanding the dynamics of mosquito vector distributions under changing environmental features across landscapes of Thailand.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus