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Microsatellite DNA analysis revealed a drastic genetic change of Plasmodium vivax population in the Republic of Korea during 2002 and 2003.

Iwagami M, Hwang SY, Kim SH, Park SJ, Lee GY, Matsumoto-Takahashi EL, Kho WG, Kano S - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2013)

Bottom Line: Vivax malaria was successfully eliminated in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) in the late 1970s, but it was found to have re-emerged from 1993.The LD analysis showed a gradual decrease in LD levels, while the levels of genetic differentiation between successive years and analysis of the population structure based on the Bayesian approach suggested that a drastic genetic change occurred in the South Korean population during 2002 and 2003.Molecular epidemiology using microsatellite DNA of the P. vivax population is effective for assessing the population structure and temporal dynamics of parasite transmission; information that can assist in the elimination of vivax malaria in endemic areas.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Tropical Medicine and Malaria, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT

Background: Vivax malaria was successfully eliminated in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) in the late 1970s, but it was found to have re-emerged from 1993. In order to control malaria and evaluate the effectiveness of malaria controls, it is important to develop a spatiotemporal understanding of the genetic structure of the parasite population. Here, we estimated the population structure and temporal dynamics of the transmission of Plasmodium vivax in South Korea by analyzing microsatellite DNA markers of the parasite.

Methodology/principal findings: We analyzed 14 microsatellite DNA loci of the P. vivax genome from 163 South Korean isolates collected from 1994 to 2008. Allelic data were used to analyze linkage disequilibrium (LD), genetic differentiation and population structure, in order to make a detailed estimate of temporal change in the parasite population. The LD analysis showed a gradual decrease in LD levels, while the levels of genetic differentiation between successive years and analysis of the population structure based on the Bayesian approach suggested that a drastic genetic change occurred in the South Korean population during 2002 and 2003.

Conclusions/significance: Although relapse and asymptomatic parasite carriage might influence the population structure to some extent, our results suggested the continual introduction of P. vivax into South Korea through other parasite population sources. One possible source, particularly during 2002 and 2003, is North Korea. Molecular epidemiology using microsatellite DNA of the P. vivax population is effective for assessing the population structure and temporal dynamics of parasite transmission; information that can assist in the elimination of vivax malaria in endemic areas.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Frequency of MGI loci per isolate.A zero in the x-axis indicates that no MGI loci were observed in a particular isolate, that is, it represents a single clone infection isolate.
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pntd-0002522-g002: Frequency of MGI loci per isolate.A zero in the x-axis indicates that no MGI loci were observed in a particular isolate, that is, it represents a single clone infection isolate.

Mentions: Instances where different sizes of alleles were observed in one locus, were regarded as multiple genotype infections (MGIs) - which were observed in some of the 14 microsatellite loci in 160 of the 163 isolates (98.2%). The frequencies of MGIs varied among the 14 loci (0.02 to 0.74; average: 0.22) (Table 2). We also examined the number of MGI loci per isolate. In the 163 isolates with 14 loci, the highest frequency of MGI loci per isolate was 2 (58 isolates). The frequencies decreased gradually according to the increase in the number of MGI loci (Fig. 2). The highest observed number of MGI loci per isolate was 11 (one isolate). The major alleles in each locus were used for population genetic analysis.


Microsatellite DNA analysis revealed a drastic genetic change of Plasmodium vivax population in the Republic of Korea during 2002 and 2003.

Iwagami M, Hwang SY, Kim SH, Park SJ, Lee GY, Matsumoto-Takahashi EL, Kho WG, Kano S - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2013)

Frequency of MGI loci per isolate.A zero in the x-axis indicates that no MGI loci were observed in a particular isolate, that is, it represents a single clone infection isolate.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3814342&req=5

pntd-0002522-g002: Frequency of MGI loci per isolate.A zero in the x-axis indicates that no MGI loci were observed in a particular isolate, that is, it represents a single clone infection isolate.
Mentions: Instances where different sizes of alleles were observed in one locus, were regarded as multiple genotype infections (MGIs) - which were observed in some of the 14 microsatellite loci in 160 of the 163 isolates (98.2%). The frequencies of MGIs varied among the 14 loci (0.02 to 0.74; average: 0.22) (Table 2). We also examined the number of MGI loci per isolate. In the 163 isolates with 14 loci, the highest frequency of MGI loci per isolate was 2 (58 isolates). The frequencies decreased gradually according to the increase in the number of MGI loci (Fig. 2). The highest observed number of MGI loci per isolate was 11 (one isolate). The major alleles in each locus were used for population genetic analysis.

Bottom Line: Vivax malaria was successfully eliminated in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) in the late 1970s, but it was found to have re-emerged from 1993.The LD analysis showed a gradual decrease in LD levels, while the levels of genetic differentiation between successive years and analysis of the population structure based on the Bayesian approach suggested that a drastic genetic change occurred in the South Korean population during 2002 and 2003.Molecular epidemiology using microsatellite DNA of the P. vivax population is effective for assessing the population structure and temporal dynamics of parasite transmission; information that can assist in the elimination of vivax malaria in endemic areas.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Tropical Medicine and Malaria, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT

Background: Vivax malaria was successfully eliminated in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) in the late 1970s, but it was found to have re-emerged from 1993. In order to control malaria and evaluate the effectiveness of malaria controls, it is important to develop a spatiotemporal understanding of the genetic structure of the parasite population. Here, we estimated the population structure and temporal dynamics of the transmission of Plasmodium vivax in South Korea by analyzing microsatellite DNA markers of the parasite.

Methodology/principal findings: We analyzed 14 microsatellite DNA loci of the P. vivax genome from 163 South Korean isolates collected from 1994 to 2008. Allelic data were used to analyze linkage disequilibrium (LD), genetic differentiation and population structure, in order to make a detailed estimate of temporal change in the parasite population. The LD analysis showed a gradual decrease in LD levels, while the levels of genetic differentiation between successive years and analysis of the population structure based on the Bayesian approach suggested that a drastic genetic change occurred in the South Korean population during 2002 and 2003.

Conclusions/significance: Although relapse and asymptomatic parasite carriage might influence the population structure to some extent, our results suggested the continual introduction of P. vivax into South Korea through other parasite population sources. One possible source, particularly during 2002 and 2003, is North Korea. Molecular epidemiology using microsatellite DNA of the P. vivax population is effective for assessing the population structure and temporal dynamics of parasite transmission; information that can assist in the elimination of vivax malaria in endemic areas.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus