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MicroRNAs and long non-coding RNAs: prospects in diagnostics and therapy of cancer.

Hauptman N, Glavac D - Radiol Oncol (2013)

Bottom Line: Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are key regulatory molecules in cellular processes, and are potential biomarkers in many diseases.There are numerous studies confirming involvement of ncRNAs in cancer initiation, development and progression, but have only been recently identified as new diagnostic and prognostic tools.This can be beneficial in future medical cancer treatment options, since ncRNAs are natural antisense interactors included in regulation of many genes connected to survival and proliferation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Genetics, Institute of Pathology, Medical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are key regulatory molecules in cellular processes, and are potential biomarkers in many diseases. Currently, microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs are being pursued as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and as therapeutic tools in cancer, since their expression profiling is able to distinguish different cancer types and classify their sub-types.

Conclusions: There are numerous studies confirming involvement of ncRNAs in cancer initiation, development and progression, but have only been recently identified as new diagnostic and prognostic tools. This can be beneficial in future medical cancer treatment options, since ncRNAs are natural antisense interactors included in regulation of many genes connected to survival and proliferation. Research is directed in development of useful markers for diagnosis and prognosis in cancer and in developing new RNA-based cancer therapies, of which some are already in clinical trials.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic presentation of oncogenic and tumor suppressor miRNAs in normal and cancer cell and the potential of modifying state in cancer cell with therapy.
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f2-rado-47-04-311: Schematic presentation of oncogenic and tumor suppressor miRNAs in normal and cancer cell and the potential of modifying state in cancer cell with therapy.

Mentions: MiRNAs involved and deregulated in cancer are divided into tumor suppressor and oncogenic miRNAs. Oncogenic miRNAs are overexpressed in cancer, downregulating tumor suppressor genes.95 To reverse the oncogenic miRNA expression they have to be inhibited to relieve their targets. This can be achieved by introducing mRNAs targeting specific miRNAs or by using antisense single-stranded oligonucleotides complementary to miRNA, acting as miRNA sponges and miRNA antagonists, respectively.96–98 On the other hand tumor suppressor miRNAs are under expressed in the cancer, their role being down-regulation of oncogenes.95,99 To restore the levels of tumor suppressor miRNAs the replacement therapy of mimics miRNA or DNA coding for specific miRNAs is needed.96,100 This is schematically presented in Figure 2.


MicroRNAs and long non-coding RNAs: prospects in diagnostics and therapy of cancer.

Hauptman N, Glavac D - Radiol Oncol (2013)

Schematic presentation of oncogenic and tumor suppressor miRNAs in normal and cancer cell and the potential of modifying state in cancer cell with therapy.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3814275&req=5

f2-rado-47-04-311: Schematic presentation of oncogenic and tumor suppressor miRNAs in normal and cancer cell and the potential of modifying state in cancer cell with therapy.
Mentions: MiRNAs involved and deregulated in cancer are divided into tumor suppressor and oncogenic miRNAs. Oncogenic miRNAs are overexpressed in cancer, downregulating tumor suppressor genes.95 To reverse the oncogenic miRNA expression they have to be inhibited to relieve their targets. This can be achieved by introducing mRNAs targeting specific miRNAs or by using antisense single-stranded oligonucleotides complementary to miRNA, acting as miRNA sponges and miRNA antagonists, respectively.96–98 On the other hand tumor suppressor miRNAs are under expressed in the cancer, their role being down-regulation of oncogenes.95,99 To restore the levels of tumor suppressor miRNAs the replacement therapy of mimics miRNA or DNA coding for specific miRNAs is needed.96,100 This is schematically presented in Figure 2.

Bottom Line: Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are key regulatory molecules in cellular processes, and are potential biomarkers in many diseases.There are numerous studies confirming involvement of ncRNAs in cancer initiation, development and progression, but have only been recently identified as new diagnostic and prognostic tools.This can be beneficial in future medical cancer treatment options, since ncRNAs are natural antisense interactors included in regulation of many genes connected to survival and proliferation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Genetics, Institute of Pathology, Medical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are key regulatory molecules in cellular processes, and are potential biomarkers in many diseases. Currently, microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs are being pursued as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and as therapeutic tools in cancer, since their expression profiling is able to distinguish different cancer types and classify their sub-types.

Conclusions: There are numerous studies confirming involvement of ncRNAs in cancer initiation, development and progression, but have only been recently identified as new diagnostic and prognostic tools. This can be beneficial in future medical cancer treatment options, since ncRNAs are natural antisense interactors included in regulation of many genes connected to survival and proliferation. Research is directed in development of useful markers for diagnosis and prognosis in cancer and in developing new RNA-based cancer therapies, of which some are already in clinical trials.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus